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Source Book for 
The Diploma in Teacher Education 

Untouchability is a Sin 
Untouchability is a Crime 
Untouchability is Inhuman 




© Government of Tamilnadu 
First Edition - 2009 


Dr.S. Swaminatha Pillai, 

Director, DDE (Retd.), 
G 4 Adyar Apartments, 
Kottur Gardens, Chennai - 600 085. 


Mrs. Nalini Parthiban, 

Former Principal, 

Vanavani Matric. Hr. Sec. School, 

IIT Campus, Chennai. 

Dr. K.N. Elangovan, Principal, 

District Institute of Education and 
Training, Perundurai, 
Erode District. 

Coordinator & Author 

Mr. J. Inbaraj, 

Assistant Professor, 
Directorate of Teacher Education, 
Research and Training, 
Chennai -600 006. 


Mr. N. Vaikunda Mani Nadar, 

Senior Lecturer, District Institute 
of Education and Training, 
Thirumoorthy Nagar, 
Coimbatore District. 

Mr. Bertheu, 

ELT Expert, 4/32, lohns Street, 
Veerapanidyan Pattinam, 
Thoothukudi-628 216. 

Mrs.V. Vijayakanthi, 

Principal (Retd), 

Govt. Teacher Training Institute, 


Chennai - 600 014. 

Mrs.T.L. Vasanthi, 


District Institute of Education and 

Training, Mannargudi, 


Price : Rs. 

This book has been prepared by The Directorate of Teacher Education, 
Research and Training on behalf of the Govt, of Tamilnadu. 

This book has been printed on 70 GSM paper 

Printed by Web offset at : 


The Government of Tamil Nadu is committed to bring about change in 
all aspects of Education at all levels and thereby provide quality education. 
This initiative coupled with the guidelines given in the National Curriculum 
Framework-2005 by the NCERT has resulted in the development of a 
curriculum for the Diploma in Teacher Education Course. The following five 
cardinal Principles of NCF 2005 have been assimilated into the Teacher 
Education Curriculum and reflected in the Source Books introduced in 

* Connecting knowledge to life outside the school 

* Ensuring that learning shifts away from rote methods 

* Enriching the curriculum so that it goes beyond textbooks 

* Making Examinations more flexible and integrating them with 
classroom life. 

* Nurturing an overriding identity informed by caring concerns within 
the democratic policy of the country. 

The curriculum developed by DTE RT for the Diploma in Teacher Education is 
aimed at developing the following skills in the teacher trainees of Elementary 
Teacher Education. 

* The ability to seek knowledge continuously 

* Skill of applying acquired knowledge to various situations 

* Skill to realize the inner potential and live in harmony with others. 

* Mastery of learning in all the subjects 

* Skill for doing constructive activities 

* The proficiency of student-teachers in innovations and research 

The curriculum has the following objectives: 

* To enhance the professionalism of student-teachers and develop their 
holistic personality 

* To nurture values such as national integration, milk of human 
kindness and moral values 

* To give importance to Adolescence Education, Health Education, Life 
Skills Education, Environmental Education, Road Safety and Peace 


The new Source Book provides plenty of scope for self-learning for the 
Teacher Trainees and motivates them to devise activities that lead children 
towards self-learning. There is a paradigm shift from rote-learning to self 
learning through the Activity Based Learning strategy. 

The source books will guide student teachers to explore library resources 
to reinforce their teaching strategies. This would ensure maximum learning 
among them to improve their skills of observation, classroom management, 
content knowledge, skill touseTeaching Learning Material (TLM) and Teaching 
Learning Equipment (TLE) appropriately, leadership traits and knowledge of 
Child Psychology. 

Source books are not text books. They are simply guides which show 
where resources are available for reference and learning. From the identified 
resources learning needs are to be expanded. The duties of the teacher 
educators are to learn, understand, analyse, consolidate and evaluate. The 
duties of the student teachers are to assimilate teaching ideas and learn well 
to become reflective practitioners. 

I commend all the educationists and teacher educators involved in the 
process of preparing the source book and also congratulate the prospective 
student teachers who are likely to be benefited from the Diploma in Teacher 
Education Source books. 


Directorate of Teacher Education, 

Research and Training, Chennai - 600 006 


To the teacher educator ... 

Congratulations on having successfully transacted the first year Source 
Book material. 

Here is yet another challenging- and ofcourse- interesting package in 
the form of the second year source book. You can be confident of building this 
superstructure on the strong foundation you have already laid. This time the 
focus is on enhancing more practical language skills and reinforcing a few 
more grammar items in the content area. As regards the methodology, topics 
on Teaching, Reading, Writing, Composition and Grammar are discussed in 
detail. And yes! Crucial topics such as preparations of Teaching Learning 
Materials and Assessment would certainly help you givethefinal - in fact vital 
- touches in shaping the future teachers for whom you are the role model. 

The practical and exploration activities suggested in the units would 
help the trainees expand their horizon of learning. It may not be out of place 
here to remind you of the quote- 

An average teacher tells; 

A good teacher explains; 

The best teacher demonstrates; and 

The great teacher inspires. 

We, the authors, are quite confident that this material would certainly 
help you inspire your trainees. The tasks given under the various units would 
initiate the trainees to modify, multiply and design similar activities for the 
primary school children. The tasks meant for the trainees would help them 
enhance their fluency and accuracy. This would enable them to acquire the 
much talked about 'soft skills' and 'employability skills'; to face challenges 
and come out with flying colours. 

And one final word to you with the quote- 

Ships are safe in harbour 

But that is not what ships are built for 

Shore up your trainees' confidence! Sail on and you will sail through. 


English Language Teaching - DTE II Year 

English has become an integral part of India .After the advent of the 
globalization of economy, the parental demand for English has sky rocketed. 
Teachers are expected to train students not only in numbers and letters but also 
in soft skills that would increase their employability when they enter the 
employment market. English reaches children through various ways other than 
the teacher. Their acquaintance with English needs to be kept as a base and the 
teacher has to build on it. We all know that an interested teacher alone can 
make the classes interesting. So it is necessary to instill enthusiasm and develop 
the right attitude among the teacher trainees in teaching English. 

From this perspective, the syllabus for English Language Teaching has been 
framed with the following objectives to equip the trainees with the necessary 

1. to Listen, Speak, Read and Write effectively. 

2. to increase their vocabulary 

3. to strengthen the knowledge of English Grammar and application skills. 

4. to adopt effective Teaching-Learning strategies. 

5. to organize language activities and games in the classroom. 

6. to make children communicate in English 

7. to teach various areas like Prose, Poem, Composition, Supplementary Readers. 

8. to develop their capacity to use different evaluation techniques and prepare 
question papers. 

9. to conduct workshops, undertake Action Research and simple projects. 

10. to use Newspapers in teaching English. 

11. to design and prepare Teaching Learning Materials, Self Learning Materials 
and to use multimedia technology for the teaching English. 

Part -A: Content 
Practical Language Skills 

1. Basic vocabulary - (Apart from vocabulary items from Std. I to X, vocabulary 
for day to day use). 

2. Synonyms and antonyms. 

3. Expanding headlines. 

4. Developing proverbs into paragraphs. 

5. Explaining common processes. 

6. Writing formal and informal letters. 

7. Using punctuation. 

8. Writing specific instructions. 

9. Describing jobs. 

10. Preparing Biodata. 

11. Completion of a given story. 


12. Summarising. 

13. Writing review of two books. 

Grammar and Usage 

1. Phrasal verbs and prepositional phrases. 

2. Relative clauses. 

3. Conditional clauses. 

4. Infinitives and gerunds. 

5. Framing questions. 

6. Question tags. 

7. Active and passive voice. 

8. Transformation: Simple 

Compound - Complex. 
Part-B: Methodology 



Unit-I: Reading 

Importance of Reading - Reading skill and 
reading process - Loud Reading and Silent 
Reading - Reading readiness - Methods of 
teaching reading - Picture reading - 
Materials for teaching reading - How to 
make reading effective - Interpreting non- 
verbal texts. 
Types of reading 

Study skills, Skipping, Skimming and 
Scanning / SQ3R (Survey, Question, Read, 
Recite, Recall) 

Preparation of suitable materials, 

demonstration and peer teaching. 

Workshop for preparation of 


Preparation of simple texts for 


Graphs, Pie-charts, Bar diagram, 


Unit-I I: Writing 

Handwriting - Mechanics of handwriting - 
Characteristics of good handwriting - 
Importance - Development of continuous 
writing - Giving dictation exercises - 
Common written exercises - Expanding 
sentences - Story mapping - Translation 
exercise - More of Tamil to English 
exercises - Writing Review of any two 
books taken from the Institute library and 
which is relevant to the subject. 

* Regular practice with italic copy 

* Records to be submitted by the 

* Designing exercises and records 
to be maintained by trainees. 


Unit-Ill: Grammar 

. Place of grammar in school curriculum. * Demonstration of Teaching 

i. Formal and functional grammar. specific grammar items and peer 

ii. Methods of teaching grammar. teaching. 

* Deductive 

* Inductive 

iv. Steps involved in teaching grammar. 

Unit-IV: Composition 

i. Aims and objectives of teaching 

i. Oral and written composition. 

ii. Controlled and guided composition. 

v. Expansion exercises. 

v. Free composition. 

vi. Correcting composition exercises. 

vii. Developing creative competency. 

viii. Developing strategic competency. 

* Demonstrations and peer 

* Assigning writing tasks. 

* Designing writing tasks for 

Unit-V: Assessment 

i. Need for Assessment. 

Type of tests - Oral, written, objective, 

subjective - diagnostic, achievement 


Formative, summative evaluation. 

Error Analysis - Common Errors - 

Remedial Measures. 



* Workshop - Preparation of blue 
prints and question papers and 
question banks. 

Unit-VI: Teaching Learning Materials (TLM) 

Setting up resource centres in the 
Institute and also in Practising schools. 

. Language games - a few samples. 

i. Language Lab. 

ii. Newspaper for Teaching English (NITE) 

v. Blackboard Sketches 

v. Use of Radio, TV, Internet for teaching 

vi. Use of Information Communicative 
Technology (ICT) for Teaching English 

* Workshop on preparation of a 
variety of TLM for each class and 
each unit. 

* Workshop on preparation of simple 
meaningful tasks. 

* Conducting games 

* Project on how to incorporate the 
print media for teaching English 
in schools. 


Books for Reference 

1. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives - Benjamin Bloom 

2. The Teaching of Mother Tongue in Secondary Schools - Gurrey 

3. Teaching Mother Tongue - W. M. Rhyburn 

4. Infinitives and Gerunds - P. B. Ballard 

5. Micro-teaching - Allen and Ryan 

6. Universals in Linguistic Theory - Emman Bach 

7. Language - Leonard Bloom Field 

8. Syntactic Structures - Noam Chomsky 

9. A Course in Modern Linguistics - Charles Hocket 

10. An Introduction to the Study of Speech - Sapire Edward 

11. An Introduction to Linguistic Science - Sturtevart 

12. National Policy on Education, 1986. 




a. Practical Language Skills 1 

b. Grammar and Usage 42 


Unit - I Teaching Reading 87 

Unit -II Teaching Writing 121 

Unit III Teaching Grammar 170 

Unit IV Teaching Composition 192 

Unit - V Assessment 221 

Unit - VI Teaching Learning Materials 246 

Blue Print 279 

Model Question Papers 280 

I nternal Assessment 283 



The topics dealt with in this section are familiar to you. You must have worked out several 
exercises under these areas in your schools. However as a quick recap and also by way of 
giving you tips to teach them in schools, simple sample exercises at the children's level 
are suggested. You can multiply, modify and adapt them to suit the children you are going to 
teach. A few other exercises are at your level to strengthen your language skill. Practise 
doing them and gain more confidence in handling English. 

Enjoy doing them so that as a prospective teacher you can pass on the joy of learning 
to the children. 


You are a teacher-trainee now. You have mastered around 2500 to 3000 words so far. 
Yes, you have! Be confident that you can recall and make use of your vocabulary. Don't be 
diffident (now you can pick up the antonym) that you do not know how to use these words 
fluently in writing and speech. You can ! You have lots of excellent ideas but you feel you are 
not able to express them as fluently in English as in your mother tongue. Don't worry. The 
fact that you are so fluent in your mother tongue (First language-Lj) should help you realise 
that if a few conditions like exposure and constant use are fulfilled in learning a second 
language, you can be equally fluent in L 2 also. 

First, there is a felt need in the L ; (first language - mostly mother tongue). 'Knowing 
the words' is a matter of survival or atleast of social competence. 

This basic need does not exist in most second language (here English) learning. 

Secondly, the L ; learner mostly controls his own rate of learning in a protective 
environment. Adults are tolerant of children's ignorance of language : the child is more 
likely to feel angry and frustrated in this respect. So he learns what he needs as and when he 
needs it. 

Thirdly, the learner of L ; is exposed to an enormous quantity of his own language 
and he has tremendous scope for repetition of what he learns. 

Fourth, the language encountered is always learnt in an appropriate situation and in 
the appropriate context. So the L ; learner will not have too many problems with 
appropriateness or with collocation. 

Fifth, since the words in L ; are learnt as they arise out of a felt-need in a particular 
situation, they usually have a clear denotation (what the words denote / stand for). Young 


children do have problems with denotation. For example - at an early stage, a child may 
equate the word 'dog' with any four-legged animal - only later will he narrow it down and 
discover names for other types of animals. 

In learning the vocabulary of L 2 (second language), the circumstances are very 
different. Since the time available for learning L 2 is almost invariably very much shorter 
and exposure limited, effective and easy steps will have to be taken. And in this direction, 
the dictionary and the thesaurus are the two best handy tools facilitating the learning of 

Using the Dictionary 

A dictionary is an important reference book. It is helpful to you while reading, writing, 
spelling and speaking. A dictionary is really a long list of words. Each word in the list is 
called an entry word. Entry words are arranged alphabetically. 

Look at the sample page from a dictionary below. 

dobbin /doctor 

dock 1 (dok) n. a structure built along the 

dob.bin (dob'in) n. a 

shore; wharf. 

horse, especially a 

dock 2 (dok) n. the solid, fleshy part of an 

gently, plodding one. 

animal's tail. -v.t. to cut the end off or shorten: pin.scher , 

to dock a horse's tail. 

(do'berman pin'sher) a ^-3m 

dock 3 (dok) n. the place in a criminal court 

dog belonging to a breed ^^fc>, 

^^^ where the defendant stands or sits during a 

developed in Germany, m 
having a long head, Wi 
slender legs, and usually Jy 
a sleek, black or brown *Jr~ 

B trial. (Flemish dok cage) . 

^l dock 4 (dok) n. any group of plants related to 
. Jj . buckwheat. (Old English docce) . 

coat. (From Ludwig 

doctor (dok' tar) n. 1. a person who is 

Doberman, a 

licensed to practice medicine, such as 

nineteenth century 

pediatrics. 2. a person who is licensed to 

German dog breeder). 

practice any of various related sciences, such 

as dentistry. 3. a person who holds the highest 

graduate degree given by a university. 

Notice that the word dobbin is the first entry word on the sample page. At the top of 
the sample page there are two words printed in dark type: dobbin/doctor. These words are 
called guide words. The guide words are the first and last word on a particular dictionary 
page. Notice that dobbin is the first word and doctor is the last word on the sample page. 
All the entry words on this page begin with dob or doc. 

You can use a dictionary to help you find the meaning of words that you do not know. 
Entry words usually have more than one meaning. 

1 . Often the meanings of a word are related. They are usually numbered after the entry 
word. Look at the word doctor on the sample page. Three related meanings are listed. 

2. Sometimes a word has two or more unrelated meanings. Then there is more than one 
entry for the same word. Look at the word dock. The word dock is spelt and pronounced 
the same way four times, but the meanings are different. The numbers above the last 
letter of dock show the four unrelated meanings. 

3. A part of a sentence or a sample sentence will sometimes show how the entry word is 
used. Look at the second meaning of dock to see how you could use it in a sentence. 

Task 1 

Use the sample dictionary page to answer these questions. 

1. What are the guide words? 

2. Which word has the most related meanings? How do you know? 

3. Which words have only one meaning in this dictionary page? 

4. What is the third meaning of dock? 

5. What is a synonym of the first meaning of dock? 

6. What is a dobbin? 

7. What is the third meaning of doctor? 

Task 2 

Below are guide words on two pages of a dictionary. 

acceptable / accomplishment 7 eyeball /Ezra 341 

On which page would you find each of these entry words? 
1. accompany 2. eyetooth 3. accident 4. eyebrow 

~ : This mark is called tilde. It is used in Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionaries in 
certain parts of an entry to replace the entry word. 

raise /reiz/ v - 1(a) 

2 ~ sth (to sth) to increase the amount or level of sth: [Vn] raise salaries/prices/ 
taxes - raise standards of service. Don't tell her about the job until you know for sure 
- we don't want to raise her hopes (ie give her too much hope). To raise public 
awareness of an issue [Vnpr] He raised his offer to £500 - raise the temperature to 



Life would be dull if we used the same words over and over again. Words wear out. 
For this reason our language has different words that have similar meanings. A synonym is 
a word that has nearly the same meaning as another word. 

Look at the words below. All of them are synonyms. Each verb denotes almost the 
same action. 

say talk speak mention tell 

Now look at the words below. Do all of these synonyms mean exactly the same thing? 

laugh snicker giggle smile titter chuckle 

Words may be synonyms even when they do not name exactly the same action. 

Sometimes in your writing you may be able to think of more than one word to tell 
about an action. When you have a choice, always use the verb that best names the action. 

Look at these sentences below. 

Sania hits the ball. 
Sania taps the ball. 
Sania sends the ball. 

Sania knocks the ball. 
Sania strikes the ball. 
Sania slams the ball. 

The verbs in the six sentences are synonyms. The verbs mean nearly the same thing. 
But the verb slams most closely names the action. Slams is the only verb that tells how hard 
the ball is hit. 

Task 1 

A word which approximates another 


instructions as to what should be done. 


Read the first word in each row. 


Then find the word in the same 

ww that has the 

' same or almost the same 


Write that word on your paper. 

1) fast slow 



2) sad angry 



3) beautiful pretty 



4) loud notice 



5) letters mail 



Task 2 

At the primary level 

- Take a lesson from your English Course Book. 

- Notice the words given in the glossary. 

- Underline those words in the text with a pencil. 

- Write the paragraphs on a piece of paper, with the underlined words substituted by the 
meanings given in the glossary. 

This type of exercise can be repeated with the poems in the course book. 
For example : Where the mind is without fear and the head is kept high, (held) 

- Tagore 

Task 3 

- Refer to the dictionary. 

- Find out equals (synonyms) for the underlined words. 

- Substitute the words and write the paragraph. 

But a truck that is carrying things for the supermarket to sell would not bring the boxes right 
into this front room. The boxes would first go into a huge back room. 

Task 4 

Each sentence is followed by two verbs that are synonymous. Either verb completes the 
sentence. Which verb most closely names the action? Give reasons for your answer. 

1. Leander across the court in record time, (walked, sped) 

2. The hard-hit ball by. (whizzed, went) 

3. Leander the ball as hard as he could, (slammed, tapped) 

4. The other player at the ball in surprise, (looked, stared). 


Choose the verb in brackets that most closely names the action. Write each sentence with 
the verb you have chosen. 

1 . The big tennis match the eager watchers, (pleased, thrilled) 

2. Hundreds of fans the small stadium, (jammed, filled) 

3. Sekar just barely between two other people, (squeezed, sat) 

4. The players quickly to and fro. (ran, darted) 

5. Bhoopathy the ball as hard as he could, (hit, smacked) 

6. Leander's leg hurt. He off the court, (limped, walked) 

7. Busy reporters to the telephones, (dashed, went) 

8. Excited fans up to see the action, (stood, jumped) 

Writing Sentences 

Imagine you are playing some kind of ball game. Use an action verb in each sentence. 

1 . Write a sentence using the action verb hit 

2. Write a sentence using a synonym for hit 

3. Write a sentence using the action verb run. 

4. Write a sentence using a synonym for run. 

Adjectives that Mean the Same 

Suppose everyone in your class was asked to describe the same person, place, or 
thing, all the students probably would not use the same adjectives. There are many adjectives 
that have similar meanings. 

Pick up a screw driver. You might describe it as a small instrument, but small is not 
the only adjective you can use. Five synonyms for the word small are : 

little tiny short thin narrow 

Any of these words could be used to describe it, but they do not all mean exactly the same 
thing. When you are writing, use words that most clearly say what you mean. 

Children may describe the road-roller / stone-crusher in a cement factory. They may 
describe it as a big machine. But big is not the only adjective you can use. Here are 
five synonyms for the word big : 

huge enormous giant grand large 

Any of these words can also be used to describe it. The synonyms huge and enormous are 
the words that best describe it. 

Task 5 

Read each sentence. Read the words after each sentence. Which of these words is a synonym 
for the underlined word? Tick it. 

1. It was a peaceful night, (calm, dark, cold) 

2. A happy audience filled the hall, (brave, large, cheerful) 

3. They came to hear pleasant music, (costly, lovely, loud) 

Task 6 

Read each sentence. Read the words after each sentence. Write the word that is a synonym 
for the underlined word. 

1. The nervous musicians waited, (bitter, scared, eager) 

2. They had done a silly thing, (different, old, foolish) 

3. They had brought the wrong music, (sad, true, incorrect) 

4. The noisy crowd became silent, (anxious, loud, angry) 

5. The lights went out in the whole room, (crowded, entire, dark) 

Replace each underlined word with a synonym. Write the sentence with the word you have 

6. The cautious audience walked in the darkness. 

7. They looked for a fast way to leave the room. 

8. The musician walked through the long hall. 

9. The unhappy people went home disappointed. 

Task 7 

The next day.... 

Read each sentence. Read the words in brackets. Write the word that is a synonym for the 
underlined word in the sentence. 

1. The musicians prepared for a final concert, (best, last, single) 

2. They brought the entire music, (right, proper, complete) 

3. They remembered their usual instruments, (regular, odd, old) 

4. The frightened musicians appeared, (sleepy, nervous, angry) 

5. Their leader entered the enormous, hall (large, crowded, new) 

6. The musicians played a difficult song, (long, familiar, hard) 

7. They did a perfect job, (fair, excellent, colourful) 

8. The cheerful audience clapped at the end. (sad, happy, dull) 

9. The astonished musicians fainted in surprise, (red, amazed, tired) 

Writing Sentences 

1 . Write two sentences that describe the music you like. Use synonyms for these 
words in your sentences. 

a. great b. nice 

2. Write two sentences that describe music you don't like. Use synonyms for these 
words in your sentences. 

a. silly b. loud 

Using the Thesaurus 

The thesaurus provides synonyms - (words that mean the same or nearly the same) 
and antonyms (words that mean the opposite) for your spelling words. Use this sample to 
identify the various parts of each thesaurus entry. 

y part of speech • definition 

entry word ► agree, v. to have the same opinion. We all I sample 

agree that Mr. Kumble would make a good sentence 


synonym ► contract to make an agreement. The painter 

contracted to paint the house. 

promise to give one's word. We promised to 

clean our room today. 

stipulate to demand as a condition of agreement. 

The lawyer stipulated what terms were needed. 

antonym ► Antonym : disagree 

Entry words are listed in alphabetical order and are printed in boldface type. 

The abbreviation for the part of speech of each entry word follows the boldface 
entry word. 

The definition for the entry word matches the definition given for the word in your 
spelling dictionary. A sample sentence is provided to show the correct usage of the 
word in context. 

Each synonym for an entry word is listed under the entry word in italics. Again, a 
sample sentence is provided to show the correct usage of the synonym in context. 
Where appropriate, antonyms for the entry word are listed at the end of the entry. 



Correct this paragraph about a name. For each underlined word write an antonym from the 
star so that you will get the original meaning of the paragraph. Rewrite the paragraph. 

When I was big, I did not hate my name. I thought the name sounded too young . My classmates 
teased me by calling me Sundeli (=mouse). But then I learned that the name Sundari 
means ugly and that it was my grandmother's name. Now I am sad with the name. I think 
I'll discard it! 


Task 1 

In a newspaper we see short and crisp headlines and given below each is an expansion of it. 

- Pick out a headline from the newspaper. 
Write it on the board. 

- Ask each child to add information to it. 

Tell them to keep within the one-sentence limit. 

- See who has the longest, most informative sentence. 

A sample paper cutting: 



in 72 cities 

Special Correspondent 

NEW DELHI: A toll-free telephone 
helpline for children in distress 
is now available in 72 cities. 

The children should be given chances to go through such newspaper headlines and 

Task 2 

- Take a short quotation, proverb etc. 

- Write it on the blackboard. 

- Ask the children to copy it down at the top of a blank sheet of paper. 

- Tell them to work in pairs. 

- Instruct them what to do. 

a. Copy out key words from the original phrase. 

b. Under each key word, write a short dictionary definition of that word. 

c. Make necessary grammatical alterations. 

d. Link the definitions and produce a new sentence or sequence of sentences. 

e. Copy out the key words from the new sentence, 
f Repeat steps b &c as long as is required. 

Task 3 

Watch the news on TV tonight and make notes about the news items, sports and weather 
forecast. Turn them into headlines. In groups, compare your headlines. How similar are they ? 



Task 1 
Time Keepers 

In groups, discuss these questions. 
*X* Who is the most punctual student in the class? 

*X* How many students in your group use a calendar? Why do they use it? 
*X* How many of you have got a watch? How often do you look at it? 

*X* What is your favourite time of day /year? 
*X* Name something that is a waste of time. 
*X* What is 'quality time ' ? 

Task 2 
Time flies 

In small groups, discuss and explain these sayings. Do you agree or disagree with them? 
*X* Time and tide wait for no one. 
*X* Tomorrow never comes. 
*X* Time is a great healer. 
*X* Time is gold. 

*X* There 's no time like the present. 
♦♦♦ You are only young once. 
*X* You cannot save time; you can only spend it. 

Task 3 

Write two / three paragraphs 



of the above 


Use the points you gathered 

during the group discussion. 

Task 4 

Life time 

Draw a graph of your own life, with the line rising for good periods and falling for bad ones. 
In pairs, explain the features of your graph to each other. 


Developing Paragraphs 
Main Idea / Details 

Putting ideas in order 

Students have lots of ideas. They can express their ideas in sentences and paragraphs. 
But readers may be confused if they write like this: 

The telephone rang. I ate bananas for breakfast. My favourite TV programme 
is News. I visited friends in Chennai last summer. I love to go swimming. 

This paragraph is confusing because the ideas are not related. When we write, related 
sentences should be grouped together in a paragraph. 

The paragraph should have a main idea. The sentence that states this main idea is 
called a topic sentence. 

The topic sentence is often the first sentence in the paragraph. 

The other sentences in the paragraph are called detail sentences because they give 
more details about the main idea. 

Sentences in a paragraph sometimes tell about things in the order in which they 

Some time-order words that help to follow the action are -first, next, then, finally 
and at last. 

Here is an example of how a group of sentences in a paragraph work together. Notice 
that the topic sentence comes first and that the detail sentences begin with the time-order 

Topic Sentence 
Detail 1 
Detail 2 
Detail 3 
Detail 4 

Rahul discovered his shoes were missing. 
First he looked upstairs for them. 
Next he searched downstairs. 
Then he looked in one last place. 
Finally he found them under his cot. 

Give examples to the students and encourage them to find out the topic sentences 
and details. 


Example 1 

Read these sentences. Find the topic sentence first. Then shorn them how to put the other 
sentences in the correct order. Use the time-order words to help you. 

1 . Next she questioned her neighbour who was a detective. 

2. Finally she decided to study to be a police officer. 

3 . Rathi wanted to be a detective. 

4. First she read many books about detectives. 

5 . Then she thought about the problems of the j ob . 

Example 2 

Read the group of sentences below. Write the topic sentence first. Write the detail sentences 
in the correct order after the topic sentence. Use the time-order words to help you. 

1 . First Anand and Rathi checked the valve. 

2 . Anand' s bike had a flat tyre every day. 

3 . Finally the mystery was solved. 

4. Next they questioned the neighbourhood children. 

5 . Then they discovered a box of tacks on the floor. 
Some more examples 

Read each paragraph. Then write the answer to each question. 

A When Mr. Vinoth begins a novel, he first gets himself into the proper mood. He says 
it is like an actor getting into the character. He listens to music, watches television, 
talks to people and shops at a departmental store. While he 's doing these things, the 
characters for his stories come to his mind. 

1 . What is the main idea of the paragraph? 

The main idea is how Mr. Vinoth gets himself into the proper mood for writing. 

2. What are the four details that tell you about the main idea? 

a. He listens to music. 

b. He watches television. 

c. He talks to people. 

d. He shops at a departmental store. 


B. Mr. Ramkumar has lived in a number of different places. He was born in Madurai. 
He grew up in Ooty and Trichy. For a while, he lived in Thanjavur. He now lives in 
the north of Chennai. 

1 . What is the main idea of the paragraph? 

Mr. Ramkumar has lived in a number of places. 

2. What are the four details that tell you about the main idea? 

a. He was born in Madurai. 

b. He grew up in Ooty and Trichy. 

c . He lived in Thanj avur. 

d. He now lives in the north of Chennai. 

Task 5 

Read the Paragraph and pick out the right answer to the question. 

There are many ways to keep your neighbourhood clean. Remember to throw your 
trash away in the right place. Don 't throw it out on the sidewalk or street. Ask your 
family and friends not to litter the streets. Make posters to show your neighbours 
how to help out, too. You can also make posters and banners with a message. Your 
message might say, "Be Good. Help Our Neighbourhood" . 

1 . What is the paragraph about? 

a. Talking to your family 

b. Asking friends to help you 

c. Sidewalks and streets 

d. Keeping the neighbourhood clean 

2. You can make posters and banners to . 

a. draw pictures of animals 

b. write letters 

c. show people how to help 

d. throw away trash 

3 . What is the way to help keep your neighbourhood clean? 

a. Go to the library and get some books about trash. 

b. Ask your family and friends not to litter the streets. 

c. Cut the grass. 

d. Grow plants in front of every house. 



A process describes how something is done, step by step. A few examples are given 
here. The teachers can take interest in describing and demonstrating . 

1. Cloud in a jar 

- Take a clean heat-proof glass j ar, fill it with hot water. 

- Close the lid. 

- Let it stand for a few minutes. 

- Empty out the water. 

- Immediately put the lid back on. 

- Place the jar in a pan of ice cubes. 

A cloud will form inside the jar because the hot, moist air has been cooled. 

2. Bird Nesting Ball 

To make a bird nesting ball you will need 

a plastic net bag in which fruits are packed at the market. 

- a cord as long as your arm. 

- twisters or yarn to close the bag. 

- scraps of cloth, yarn, string and cotton balls. 

Now, starting with step 1 . 

1 . Close one end of the bag with yarn or a twister. 

Put scraps of cloth, yarn, string and the cotton balls inside the 


3 . Close the other end of the net bag with yarn or a twister. 

4. Attach the cord to the nesting ball. Tie the ends of the 
cord together for hanging. 

5 . Now the nesting ball is finished. Hang it on the branch 
of a tree or on your window. In the spring, birds will 
come to get the soft scraps to make nests. 

The birds will thank you with a song! 

3. A Collage Greeting Card 

A collage is a collection of many things. You can make a collage greeting card for a 
special person you know. 

Look through newspapers and magazines for words and pictures that remind you of 
the person. Cut out the person's name if you find it. You could make the name from single 
letters also. 

Place the words and pictures on a sheet of coloured paper. Make a pleasing 
arrangement. You could add yarn, string or other materials. 

Paste everything in place. Give the card to your special person. You may even want 
to mail it. 

Guidelines for explaining a process 

1 . Suit your explanation to your purpose and audience. Should it be general or 
technical? Simple or complicated? 

2. Explain all the necessary steps in order. Be sure, it is obvious how each step 
follows from the preceding step. 

3 . Provide information that will make each step clear. 

4 . Use exact words and explain any technical terms . 

5 . Encourage your audience to ask questions . 


1. Explain the process of recording a rhyme / dialogue in a cassette. 

2. Describe the process of fixing a fuse carrier. 

3. Describe any recipe. 

4. Describe the process of opening a Savings Account in a bank. 



Friendly Letter - Primary Level 

Writing a friendly letter is a good way to say something special to someone far away. 
Read this letter written by a boy to his friend. 

June 2, 2007 

Dear Mani, 

Ever since you moved to Chennai, I have been losing teeth! So 
far four! How many have you lost? I made a special box to keep 
them in. 

Your friend, 



S. Mani, 

7/4, 1 st Cross, New Colony, 

Chennai - 600 044. 

Task 2 

Write a friendly letter about something special. 


Thinking About a Letter 

Sometimes you might want to write a letter to a friend. You could share an experience 
by describing what happened to you. When you write to a friend, you would use a special 
form of writing called a friendly letter. Study the letter below. The five parts in a friendly 
letter are listed on the left. Notice where each part is placed on the page. 






5, Sri Ram Apartments 
_ > 37th Street 

Chennai - 61. 

June 7, 2007 

Dear Vijay, 

We had a lot of fun on the beach last week. 
Bala, Shiva, Mani and I built a huge sand castle 
with a wall that was three feet high. It had a long, 
dark tunnel, too. Mom gave us delicious 
sandwiches and a thermos of hot coffee for a 
picnic. Later we had an exciting ball fight, but 
the dog kept catching the balls! I wish you could 
have been with us. 

Your friend, 

Think about the different parts of a friendly letter. 

1 . Heading : The heading is your address. It is placed in the upper right corner. Your 
name is not written here. The date should be the day you write the letter. Leave a 
space between the heading and the greeting. 

2. Greeting : The greeting is your "hello" to the person to whom you are writing. The 
person's name is followed by a comma. 

3 . Body : The body is your message to the person to whom you are writing. Remember 
to indent all paragraphs-if there are more than one-and to use complete sentences. 


4. Closing : The closing is your "good-bye" to the friend. Place it under the body of the 
letter to the right and directly under the heading. Follow the closing with a comma. 

5. Signature : Write your name directly under the closing. Use your first name in a 
friendly letter. 

Talking About a Letter 

Study the friendly letter that Lakshmanan wrote. 

1 . What information is found in the heading? 

2. Why do you think the first name of a person is used with a friendly letter? 

3 . Look at the body of the letter. 

a. What is the topic sentence of the paragraph? 

b. How many detail sentences are there? 

c. What detail words describe the enjoyment? 

4. What other words could you use in the closing? 

Your Own Friendly Letter 

Thinking About Your Letter 

Have you ever written a friendly letter? One way to make a new friend is to write a 
friendly letter to a pen pal. A pen pal is a person (pal) to whom you write (pen) letters. 
Probably you won't actually meet your pen pal, but your letters may help you to become 
friends. It is a good way to learn about new and interesting people. Choose one of these 
imaginary people to be your pen pal: 

Ann- Marie Chapman; London, England; age 10 

Jaya Surya : Colombo, Srilanka; age 9 

Carlos Martinez; Seol, South Korea; age 9 

Barbara Homes; Washintgon, D.C.; age 10 

Writing Your Own Letter 

1 . Write the heading in the correct place. Remember that your address always needs a 
PFN code. Use today's date. 

2. Write the greeting. Remember that you use the first name of the pen pal in a friendly 


3 . Write the message to your pen pal in the body of the letter. Use this topic sentence; 

My name is and I am years old. Fill in the blanks with your 

name and age. 

Remember to indent the first word in your paragraph. You might include the following 
information in the detail sentences. 

a. Describe what you look like. Remember to use details. 

b. Describe what you like to do. Use action words if possible. 

c. Describe a pet or a favourite animal. 

4. Write the closing. 

5 . Write your signature. Use your first name only. 

Edit Your Letter 

Look at your friendly letter. Read it carefully to check the following editing questions. 
Remember the two editing symbols. Use the caret ( A ) if you leave out words, and the spelling 
sign (sp) if you mispell a word. 

1 . Did your topic sentence convey the main idea? 

2. Did each detail sentence state a complete idea? 

3. Did you use good describing words in your sentences? 

4. Did you use action words and details? 

5. Did you follow the letter form correctly? 

6 . Did you indent the first word of the first paragraph ? 

7 . Did you capitalize all proper nouns and the first word in each sentence? 

8 . Did you check your spelling ? 

Formal Letter 
Thinking About a Letter 

A business letter is different from a friendly letter. It is a serious letter often written 
to a business man or company to ask for information or to order something. A paragraph in 
a business letter should use facts to explain the purpose of the letter. 

The greeting in a letter states to whom the 
letter is written. In a business letter the greeting 
is often the name of a company or a department. 

Read the advertisement on the right. 

SALE! Warm-Up suits Rs.800 Red with 
blue stripes, green with yellow stripes 
Sizes : small, medium, large 
Order from : Ibrahim 's Sports Goods, 
472, Luz Avenue, Royapettah, 
Chennai - 600 014. 


The following business letter was written to Ibrahim's Sports Goods. How is this 
letter different from the friendly letter? 



Inside Address 



Closing > 

Signature > 

130, Vivekananda Street 


Chennai - 600 004 

June 2, 2009 

Ibrahim's Sports Goods 
472, Luz Avenue, Royapettah 
Chennai - 600 014. 

Dear Ibrahim's Sports Goods, 

I want to order a dozen T-Shirts and hockey 
sticks. I read your ad about the sale in this 
morning 's newspaper. First I like to place a 

I want a small sized T-shirt that is red with 
blue stripes. lam sending a cheque for the sale 
price of Rs. 800.00. 

Yours truly, 




Look at the business letter written to Ibrahim's Sports Goods. Notice that it has six 

Heading : The heading is in the upper right corner of the letter. It gives your address 
and date. Notice that there is a comma between the city and state and the date and the 

Inside address : The inside address starts at the left margin. This part is not found in 
a friendly letter. It is the address of the person or business firm receiving your letter. 

Greeting : The greeting begins in the left margin and ends with a punctuation mark. 

Body : The body of the letter states why you are writing the letter. It should be polite 
and short with all needed facts. 


5 . Closing : The closing comes after the body, directly under the heading. Write : "Yours 
truly", "Sincerely". 

6. Signature : Use your full name directly under the closing. Many business letters are 
typed. If so, you write your name under the signature. 

Talking About the Letter 

Study the business letter that Jayaram wrote. Use it to answer these questions. 

1 . How would Ibrahim's Sports Goods know where to send the T-shirts & bats. The 
correct address with a PIN code in the heading is very important in a business 

2. What information is written in the inside address? 

3 . Notice that the greeting gives the full name of the business. What other kind of 
greeting could you use? 

4. Look at the body of the letter. 

a. What is the topic sentence of the paragraph? 

b. What facts are there in your detail sentences? Notice that the facts answer the 
questions where, when, and what. 

5 . What last two parts are needed in a business letter? 

Formal letter 

Thinking About Your Letter 

Read the business letter to Ibrahim's Sports Goods. Imagine that you ordered a T- 
shirt from the store. When you received it, you found that something was wrong with it. 
Now you want to return it and get your money back. Think of some reasons for returning the 
shirt. For example, give facts such as the colours faded when you washed it, or the zipper 
was broken when you received it. 
Writing Your Own Letter 

Read again the business letter that Jayaram wrote. Write a letter to Ibrahim's Sports 
Goods saying that you want to return the T-shirt. Follow the directions below. If you prefer, 
choose your own topic for a similar business letter. 

1 . Write your heading with today ' s date. 

2. Write to this inside address : Ibrahim's Sports Goods; 472, Luz Avenue, 
Royapettah, Chennai - 600 014. 

3 . Write the greeting . 


Use facts in the body of the business letter. 

a. Write this topic sentence : / am returning a T-shirt. 

b. Use detail sentences to give the facts clearly and briefly. Tell the store why 
you are returning the shirt and ask for a refund of your money. Try to arrange 
your sentences according to : 

When you ordered it. 

Where you read about it. 

What is wrong. 

What you want them to do. 

Remember that even though you may feel angry 
about returning the T-shirt, it is important to 
be polite in a business letter. 

Be sure to indent the first sentence. 

Word Bank 








Edit Your Letter 

Look at your business letter. Use the following editing questions to edit your letter. 
Remember the two editing symbols. Use the caret ( A ) if you leave out words, and the spelling 
sign (sp) if you mispell a word. 

1 . Did you have a good topic sentence? 

2. Did your detail sentences state facts clearly? 

3 . Did all your sentences express a complete idea? 

4. Did you indent the first word of the paragraph? 

5 . Did you use any action words in your paragraph? 

6. Did you follow the business letter form correctly? 

7 . Did you check the spelling of your words ? 

8. Did you use capitals to start every sentence? 

9. Did you use commas in your heading correctly and in your greeting? 


Letter writing is an art 

Read this excerpt from an article by Mr. S.S.Warrier in The Hindu, Monday Jan. 14, 2008 

The opening 

The objective of your letter may be to request some action, seek or provide information, express 
gratitude, describe an event, turn down a demand, or something else. Whatever the subject, the opening 
lines of the letter should make the reader continue to read. Write them well. Language should be simple 
and approach straight forward. Avoid vagueness. The claims of your performance will raise suspicions 
about your genuineness. Refer to previous contact or correspondence, if any. 

It is desirable that the first paragraph offers a quick summary of the contents. This ensures that 
even busy executives get the essence of your message. You have to catch the reader's attention. There 
should be no beating about the bush in the first paragraph. Those who go either for vain self praise or 
hypocritical admiration of the recipient waste time and fail in achieving the goal. 

The body 

The main body should be drafted with precision. Be brief and to the point. The reader should get 
the information as quickly as possible. None would wade through a lengthy letter for your nugget of gold. 

You have to plan beforehand, whether the letter is intended just to convey information or to 
persuade the reader to take some action. The tone of the letter has to be in tune with the intention. 
Perhaps you have to revise the draft a couple of times to enhance its effectiveness. You can imagine that 
you are the recipient of the letter and visualise your possible response. 

But there is one important thing in this kind of visualisation. You should take into account the 
perceptions and attitudes of the recipient, they would be far different from yours. The tone of a letter 
addressed to the CEO of a company by a supplier of materials should be totally different from that written 
in a circular issued by the CEO to the employees. 

The point that is being emphasised here is that good vocabulary and correct grammar alone may 
not help you in producing the most successful letter. Even the fonts, spacing, and layout have to be 
different. Sometimes you may have to add a personal touch. You should go through several well written 
business letters to appreciate the finer points. If you have established rapport with the person to whom 
you write, the greetings can be in the form "Dear Mr. Ravi", instead of the impersonal 'Sir' or 'Dear Sir' . 

The end 

The ending of the letter is as important as the beginning. These lines are most likely to be read 
even by the busiest executive. The action expected from the recipient should be spelt out clearly at this 

Often you may have to write a letter of complaint. Your first impulse may be to make it strongly 
worded. An understatement may prove to be more effective in most cases than an angry letter. One basic 
principle that would help you is that you never write a letter when you are livid with rage. 

Perhaps you could mention some goodpoint in the recipient and then go to the complaint part. 
Such a diplomatic approach may prove to be more effective than an enraged explosion. 


Use the internet to log on for more articles in this series at and write excerpts. 



Sentence Signals 

Traffic lights tell a driver or a walker when to start and when to stop. A green light 
means go. Ared light means stop. When you write sentences, you use special signals. They 
tell the reader where your sentences begin and where they end. 

Look at each sentence in the box. What kind of letter is at the beginning of each 

The island was quite small. What a beautiful building it is ! 

We stand on the beach. Does someone still live here? 

Who made the hut? Look around. 

Use a capital letter to begin the first word of every sentence. 

Look again at each sentence in the box. Then look at the definitions. What signal, or 
punctuation mark, is used at the end of each sentence in the box? 

Use a period or full stop (.) at the end of a declarative or an imperative sentence, (statement 
or a command sentence) 

Use a question mark (?) at the end of an interrogative sentence, (a question sentence) 

Use an exclamation mark (!) at the end of an exclamatory sentence or an interjection. 

Talk About It 

Read each sentence. What punctuation mark should you use at the end of each one? Give 
reasons for your answers. 

1 . A fire burned in the fireplace 

2 . We saw a potato being baked 

3 . Who could have cooked it 

4. What a strange place this is 

5. Look in the other room 

6. Is there butter for the potato 


Task 1 

Rewrite each of the following sentences. Begin each sentence with a capital letter. End each 

sentence with the correct punctuation mark. 


have you heard about Bigfoot 


what is that 


it is a big creature 


what a strange beast that is 


how does it walk 


it walks like a person 


what big footprints it has 


have you seen the creature 


no one has caught it 


people are looking for it 


what a catch that would be 


i would like to see it 


the creature is furry 


what colour is its fur 


its fur is brown 


look how thick it is 

Using Commas in Writing 

You use commas in your writing to tell the reader when to pause in a sentence. 

Use a comma (,) to separate each noun in a series of three or more nouns, 
e.g. : George Washington Carver worked as a cook, a farmer, a scientist and an inventor. 

Use a comma (,) to separate each verb in a series of three or more verbs, 
e.g. : Carver worked, tested and experimented. 

Commas are also used to set off words that interrupt a sentence. 

e.g. : We'll meet on the 5th, its a Sunday though, to finalize the programme. 

Use a comma (,) to set off words such as yes, no and well when they begin a 


e.g. : Yes, Carver invented many useful things. 

Use a comma (,) to set off the name of a person who is spoken to directly in a 

e.g. : Rita, here is a book about George Washington Carver. 

e.g. : Carver became famous for his inventions, Elena. 

Use a comma (,) to separate the name of the day from the date and the date from 
the year. Use a comma after the year when it appears with the date in the middle of a 

e.g. : My friend met me on Friday, May 15, 2007. 

e.g. : My friend met me on 1 5th May 2007, when he came to Coimbatore for a wedding. 

Use a comma (,) to separate the name of a city and state. Use a comma (,) after the 
name of a state when it appears with a city name in the middle of a sentence. 

e.g. : I and my friends went camping in Doddabetta, The Nilgiris, last year. 

Task 2 

Write each sentence. Add commas where they are needed. 

1. Chimpanzees gibbons and gorillas are all apes. 

2. Chimps can be tamed easily and they are good performers. 

3. Scientists study chimpanzees in Atlanta Georgia. 

4. They eat fruit and leaves Ravi. 

5. No the Chimpanzees do not have a tail. 

Using Apostrophes in Possessives. 

Task 3 

Write the noun in each sentence that shows possession. If the noun is singular, write singular. 
If the noun is plural, write plural. 

1 . Thamizhselvi is a printer 's helper. 

2. She helps her father 's friend. 

3. The workers 'jobs are hard. 

4. She uses the artists ' ink. 

5. She reads the books' pages. 

6. Tamizh 's father is pleased. 


Task 4 

Put xfor incorrect sentence and ( * 

) for the correct sentence. 

1) a) My pen is blue. Your's is red. 

3. a) I have a pet cat. It's cute. 

b) My pen is blue. Your is red. 

b) I have a pet cat. Its cute. 

2) a) Write "yours faithfully". 

c) I call it Shiny. It's eyes shine in the dark. 

b) Write "your's faithfully " . 

d) I call it Shiny. Its eyes shine in the dark. 

4) a) Our's is a country with a rich heritage. 

b) Ours is a country with a rich heritage. 


Task 1 

The Next Step 

Tick the best answer to each question. 
1. Step-by-step instruction tells you 

a. exactly how to do something, 

how good a product is. 
where to go to find other 

how long the product will last. 
In order to follow instructions, you need to 

a. talk carefully. 

b. read carefully. 

c. listen carefully. 

d. b and c. 
When writing instructions, you should 

a. put the steps in order. 

b. list the important steps. 

c. follow the directions to see if they're correct. 

d. all of the above. 
When you follow instructions, you should 

a. read only the last step. 

b. read only the first step. 

c. read through all the steps first. 

d. read the middle steps last. 


Task 2 

Read these instructions for washing your hands. 

First turn on the water. Wet your hands and rub the soap all over them. 

Scrub your hands to remove dirt. 

Rinse the soap off your hands. 

Turn off the water. Dry your hands on a towel. 

Write step-by- step directions for getting to your school from your home. Give the directions to a 
partner. Are your directions clear? If not, revise them. 

Task 3 

Sentences that give directions. 

Most sentences that give directions are commands. 

The directions below tell you exactly what to do. They are clear and easy to understand. 
Each direction is a command, or imperative sentence. Each command begins with an action 
verb : 

e.g. make, insert and pull. Think of a suitable context. Write sentences using these 
action verbs. 
Remember, use commands to help make your directions clear and easy to read. 

Task 4 

Practice : Choose a verb from the verb box to complete each command. Then write the sentence. 
Use each word only once. 

Example : a phone. (Answer) Find a phone. 

1. _ 

2. _ 

3. _ 

4. _ 

5. _ 

6. _ 

7. _ 

8. _ 

9. _ 


_ clearly 
_ your name 
_ the address 
_ the problem 
_ any question 
_ carefully 
. any instruction 
_for help 

Verb Box 












Task 5 

Fruit Salad 

Follow these instructions to complete the "Fruit Salad" poster. 
You will need a pencil and some crayons. 

1. Write your name under the basket. 

2. Draw another leaf on the stem of the apple. 

3. Colour the apple red, and the stem and leaves green. 

4. Write the names of three fruits besides pear that begin with the letter "p 

5. Give the pear a smiling face. 

6. Use your pencil to add enough grapes to make a dozen. 

7. Write four words on the banana describing how it would taste. 

8. Draw a handle on the basket. 

9. Use your favourite crayon to draw a big bow on the handle. 

10. Colour all the fruits. 

11. Write a recipe for fruit salad on the back of the sheet. 


Read the descriptions below. 

Public health is concerned with protecting 
the cleanliness and safety of food, liquids 
and air. People who work in public health, 
test the food that is eaten in public places 
such as hospitals, schools, or restaurants. 
Others test air and water samples for 
pollution. Another word for the protection 
of public health is sanitation. People who 
work to remove garbage are often called 
sanitation workers. Sanitation engineers 
design plants to treat sewage, which is 
water containing waste matter. 

There are many different kinds of jobs in a 
small business. A business must have an 
owner who makes decisions about the way 
the business is run. Also two or more 
people could be responsible for the 
business and form a partnership. The 
owner needs other people to help run the 
store. A clerk helps people find what they 
want in the store. A stock clerk orders and 
takes care of the products that the store 
sells. A book-keeper or accountant keeps 
records of sales and expenses. 


Task 1 

The Job Market 

Do people spend too much of their lives working? 
What is the employment situation in your country? 
What are the effects of globalisation on the job 

In small groups, tell each other about these jobs. 

1. the best / worst / most interesting / most 
dangerous job you have done 

2. the best / worst / most interesting / most 
dangerous job in the world 

Task 2 


Work in two groups of six. (If the class does not divide, 
make one or more groups small and take away one of 
the roles below.) Each of you choose a different number 
from 1 to 6. You are going to discuss the building of a 
clothes factory in a poor country. Your role will be 
according to the number you choose. 

In the rich country : 

1. Businessman / investor 

2. Anti-capitalist protestor 

3. Factory worker 

In the poor country: 

4. Unemployed factory worker 

5. Politician 

6. Environmentalist 

Take turns to state whether you are in favour of the 
factory and how it will affect your life and the country 
if it is built. Assuming that the factory is going ahead, 
talk together as a group. Negotiate the best possible 
deal for everybody concerned. 


Task 3 

Here are some important aspects of a job : 

duties, pay, the boss, benefits, training, holidays, health and safety, promotion, hours of work, 
experience, overtime, unions, job security. 

Ask questions about these aspects to people doing different jobs. 

Task 4 

Describe your father's / mother's / brother's / sister's job. (You can also describe a job which 
you would like to take up.) 


You should be aware that in this era of globalisation, free economy and foreign direct 
investments, there is plenty of scope for employment. Naturally the person seeking 
employment will present all the details about himself / herself to the employer. He will do 
it in a crisp and appealing way so that his prospects of getting a job are brighter. 

You should be able to distinguish between an Application and Bio-data. Application 
is issued by the employer to know more details about the employee. Whereas Bio-data is 
prepared and presented by the applicant. 

Bio-data is also called Curriculum Vitae or Resume. An applicant is free to mention 
his / her career achievement during his college days or as an employee in the previous / 
present organisations and his present aspirations. This may add to the value of his 


Bio - Data 

1. Name 

2. Age and Date of Birth 

3. Address for Communication 

4. Educational Qualification 
(School Final Onwards) 

Name of the School / 

Examination Passed 

Year of Passing 

Grade / Class or 
% of Marks 

5. Experience : 

Name and Address 
of the company worked 


Period of 

Nature of Duties 


Training programmes attended : 






Languages Known : 


Present Salary and Perks : 


Expected Salary : 






References are persons who can vouch for the applicant's conduct, character. 



Task 1 

At the Elementary Level 

Main idea /Details 

Write the main idea of the story "The Thirsty Crow" in the centre circle. Write a few 
details that support the main idea in the surrounding circles. Leave some blank. Ask children 
to write the story. 

Provide the students with some half stories. Ask them to complete the stories. Give them 
stars to encourage reading 


many stars? 


• ••••• 

Very good 

• • • • • 


• • • • 


• • • 


Task 2 

At your (the trainees) level 

Complete the unfinished story below. You can use your imagination and complete it in 
any way you like. There is no 'right conclusion' expected. 

One winter night, I was fast asleep. It was past midnight. Suddenly I heard the sound 
of water splashing in the bathroom. I woke up and saw my mother sleeping next to 
me. There was no one else in the house. Who was in the bathroom? Because it was 
winter, all the windows and doors were tightly closed. Not even a whiff of air could 
enter the room. Then who could be in the bathroom? The splash continued. 

I opened the bathroom door slowly. 

Task 3 

This is an ancient Indian myth. It is imaginary. Stretch your imagination as far as it can go 
and complete the story. 

Once upon a time long, long ago, elephants living in India could fly. In those 
days as now, elephants were very big. They were grey in colour, just like some clouds. 
And like these clouds, the elephants could fly along in the sky, simply by flapping 
their floppy ears. 

One hot summer day, some pearly grey elephants were flying along in the 
sunshine. They soared over a village where little children were playing; over afield 
where a farmer was ploughing; over a river where a boy was bathing black buffaloes, 
and then up over a forest full of chattering monkeys. But up in the sky a hot wind was 
rushing along. It saw the flying elephants. It caught up with them and blew right into 
their trunks. The wind was like pepper 



Summarising is to put down the main points leaving out unnecessary details. To do 
this, as a first step, you need to train the children to shorten sentences. Very often sentences 
can be shortened by using one word instead of a phrase. 


Please reduce the length of this rope. 
Please shorten this rope. 

Task 1 

In the following sentences a word from the list in the box can be used instead of the phrase 
underlined. Choose the right word and write each sentence in its shortened form. 













a) Please increase the length of this rope. 

b) Riding a bicycle along a very narrow path is not an easy thing to do. 

c) The accident happened very quickly when nobody was thinking about an accident. 

d) All the men and women; boys and girls and little children in this city gathered to see the 

e) When a man is a prisoner, he wishes to be able to go wherever he likes and do whatever 
he likes without having to obey rules. 

f) In this market place there is a great deal of buying things and selling things among 

g) The dog jumped into the river where the water was not very deep. 

h) Our teacher told us that the lines he drew on the blackboard were two straight lines. 


Task 2 

At the Upper Primary Level 

An article by Sharee Stephens in Scholastic News is given below. Make the students read the 
article. Enable them to identify the main ideas. Ask them to write a summary using the main 

Boy 's Invention Solves Fishy Problem 

Columbia, Missouri - 

Eric Bundle, 8 could not get anyone to feed 
his fish while he was on vacation. So he 
invented a way to feed his fish by phoning 
his house. Eric won some big prizes and a 
lot of attention for his invention. 

Eric called his invention Dial-a-fish. 
He clamped a shaker to the phone with an 
electric kit from the hardware store. When 
the phone rang, the electricity shook the 
food into the tank. 

Dial-a-fish won a grand prize from 
'Invent America!'. 'Invent America!' is a 
national contest. It gets kids to use their 
creativity and problem- solving skills. 

Eric and other grand prize winners 
went to Washington, D.C. to display their 
inventions. They also won prizes, including 
computers and U.S. savings bonds. 

Eric even got to be on television. David 
Letterman, a talk-show host, liked the 
invention so much that he invited Eric to be 
on his show. 

I jot down 
my questions 
and ideas 
as read 



Write the main ideas of the paragraphs in 'Boys invention solves fishy problem '. 
Then use the main ideas to write a summary of the article. 


Writing a brief summary of the story 

A summary is a shortened account of a story. Even the brief summary gives the total effect 
if it answers the questions where, who, what, how, when and why. 

These points can be interpreted as 

the setting 

the characters 

the problem 

the solution and 

the moral 
While summarising a story 

read the story carefully 

make notes on the above mentioned points 

give a suitable title 


Task 3 

At the Trainee's Level 

Read the story. Follow the steps given above and summarise the story. 

The Smiling Woman 

(You have the power to change yourself as this story shows!) 

THERE was an old woman who was always in tears. One day a monk asked her why she was 
always so sad. 

"It's like this, " said the woman. "One of my 
daughters is married to an umbrella seller while 
the other is married to a potter. If it 's sunny I feel 
sorry for the daughter who is married to the 
umbrella seller because I know her husband will 
not sell any umbrella that day. If it's cloudy and 
looks like it's going to rain I feel sorry for my 
other daughter. Pots have to be dried in the sun 
and if it's raining I know her husband won 't have 
any pots to sell the next day. 

In these parts it's nearly 
always either cloudy or sunny. That is why I'm, always so sad. You will 
agree with me that it's not at all possible for me to be happy under the 

"As a matter of fact you are one of the fortunate few who are ideally 

placed to be happy at all times, " said the monk. "The next time it's raining 

do not think of your daughter who is married to the potter. Think only of 

your daughter who is married to the umbrella seller. Imagine his job. 

Imagine your daughter's joy. Take delight in their happiness. If it's sunny 

think only of the daughter who is married to the potter. Imagine her 

husband 'sjoy at being able to make so many pots. Imagine your daughter 's 

joy. Take delight in their happiness. " ^%s^ 

The woman did as the monk advised, and from then on nobody ever saw 

her with a sad face. She was always smiling. She became known as the 'Smiling Woman '. 

Adapted from Louis Fernandez 


Task 4 

Pick up suitable pieces of texts from any Science, History, Geography and Language books. 
Try these summarising techniques. 

Word web 
Keyword table 

Chronological table - (Event 1, 2, 3 ) 

Classification (Hierarchy table) 
Flow chart (Sequential table) 
Mind map 


Thinking About Your Book 

At the upper primary level - How to encourage and initiate children towards 
writing review of books. 

Stories are fun to read. They are fun to write. Stories are also fun to share with 
others. When you read a good book, you often want to tell your friends about its plot, 
characters and setting. Those three parts help you to read and write a story. You can also 
use them to report on a book. A book report helps you remember the book, lets you share 
it with others, and can help you learn how to express your thoughts in writing. 

A book report tells us about a story in two or three summary paragraphs. The summary 
tells enough about the story to interest the reader, but it doesn't give away the whole story. 
Follow these steps to write a book report. 

1 . Write the title and author of the book. Remember to underline the title. 

2. In the first paragraph describe the main character and the setting where he/she lives. 
The summary paragraph should state what the main character says and does, and what 
the author says about the character. 

3 . State one or two important events that happened in the story. This second paragraph is 
also a summary paragraph. 

Writing Your Own Book Report 

Choose a book that you have read and liked. Take notes on the parts of the book that you will 
use in your book report. 

1 . Write the title and author of the book. 

2. Write a summary paragraph that describes the main character. State what the 
character says and does. Also mention the setting where the character lives. 

3 . Write a summary paragraph about the plot of the book. Bringout about one or two 
important events that happen in the story. 


Edit Your Book Report 

1 . Did you write the title and author of the book? 

2. Did you describe the main character and the setting? 

3 . Did you write a summary paragraph about the plot? 

4. Did you indent the first sentence of each paragraph? 

5 . Did you begin your sentences with a capital letter? 

6 . Did you end your sentences with the correct punctuation? 

7. Did you spell your words correctly? 

At your level (Trainees level) 

Take up the book review section in the newspapers. Read the reviews thoroughly. You can 
write reviews of any two books you read recently or you liked very much. 

Here is an excerpt of a Book Review - KAD AVULIN KUZHANTHAIKAL - Autobiography 
: C.C.Vijayakumari; Sivasakthi Kakkum Karangal, 3/16, Ponniyamman Koil Street, 
Alapakkam, Porur, Chennai - 600 116, Rs. 250 - The Review was done by Mr. P. Sundaresan 
- The Hindu, Tuesday, February 19, 2008. 

Vijayakumari, The epitome of self-confidence and devotion to a cause, speaks her mind 
through her autibiography. Her great journey through life was beset with trials and 
tribulations right from her infancy. When conscience smote the teenager for being 
discriminated against, she quit her parental home with the guts of the "Pudumaippenn" 
conceived by Bharati. Vijaya turned a live wire wedded only to her work having been 
reckoned as an instrument of God. The book full of the philosphy of life dilates on this 
belief. By her own choosing, she lives and works for the mentally challenged whom she 
calls children of God as well as destitute senior citizens. And she scored a hat trick by 
running a chain of Sivasakthi Homes in Chennai, Bangalore and Singadivakkam village 
on the outskirts of Kancheepuram. Focus is on the invaluable services being volunteered 
by humanitarians. Not to speak of the dedicated board of trustees. There is a loud thinking 
that translation of this in other languages will go a long way to further the cause. 


1. TinaThoburn, Ruta Schlatterbeck and Ann Terry, (1982). Macmillan English, Macmillan 
Publishing Co., New York. 

2. Richard Gentry and Christine San Jose, (1996). Spelling Connections - Words into 
Language, Zaner-Bloser, Inc., Columbus, Ohio, USA. 

3. Annual Refresher Course (2006-2007). SSAand DTERT, Chennai - 6. 

4. Education Plus, The Hindu, Monday, January 14, 2008. 

5 . The Hindu, Tuesday, January 1 5 , 2008 . 






Getting Started: 

Read the monologue and write down all the phrasal verbs in it. 

When I set off for work this 
morning my scooter broke down, so I had to take the' 
bus. At the bus-stop I ran into an old friend called 
Mohan. He had come into some money recently and 
was setting up a business. He offered to take me on and 
I said I'd think it over. When I went to the office 4he man 

ager blew up at me for being late. She told me\o look 
for another job. I got on the phone to Mohan and 
said I wanted to take him up on this offer. 
He told me to come over 
[C^) y^^" \j.mmediately 

• Write down the phrasal verbs in the monologue. The 
student with the maximum number of correct answers will 
be the winner. 

Phrasal Verb 

Phrasal Verb is a verb + 
particle (usually words 
used as prepositions) and 
is replaceable with a single 

Task 1: 

Class Survey 

Materials: 7.6 xl2.7 cms cards in four different colours 

and a list of difficult phrasal verbs 

Time: 40 minutes 

Procedure: Choose themes and for each theme frame a set of questions, using the phrasal 

verbs that you want to practise. 


Do you take after your father or your mother? 
Did you grow up in a large family or a small family? 
Do you get along well with your brothers and sisters? 
Are you named after anyone in your family? 



Do you go over your notes after the class? 

Do you get along with your new classmates easily? 

Do you ever have any trouble in keeping up with the assignments? 

What is an important grammar point that you have to look out for? 

Task 2: 

On the blackboard, there are squares with both parts of phrasal verbs. When a student 
selects a certain square, he /she must use the phrasal verb in a complete sentence which 
demonstrates his/her understanding of the meaning. If the sentence is correct, the student 
puts his/her team's mark in that square. 


set out 

do over 

fill up 

get off 

give up 

try on 

turn off 

make up 

hang up 

A student from Team A chooses "give up". The student then makes a sentence orally: I 
couldn't understand the assignment, so I gave up. A sentence such as T gave' or 'don't 
give up' is not acceptable. If a sentence is accepted as being correct, the student writes an 
X over the square. 

Verb Chain: 
Task 3: 

Work in groups of four to six. Take turns to give a phrasal verb, alternately changing the 
particle and the verb, e.g. A - Take off. B - Take up. C -Let up. D- Let Down. E - Put 
down. F - Put on. If you can't think of one, you are out of the game. If you doubt another 
student's phrasal verb, challenge him/her to define it and give an example. If the student 
can't, he/she is out of the game. 

My Mime: 

Task 4: 

Shout out the phrasal verb I'm miming 

ask tor 

get up 

come in 

look tor 

take oft 

fall over 

hold on 

call on 

turn up 

show off 



(get) cut 


cut down 

hand in 

throw up 

run over 

look after 



run out 

tell off 

look up 
(a word) 

give up 


Work in groups and see how many of the phrasal verbs you can remember. Take turns to 
choose verbs to act for the rest of the group using mime and words, e.g. come across- 

Oh, look! I've found an old coin down the back of this armchair. 

Phrasal Verbs: More Hints 

A phrasal verb is formed by adding a preposition to a verb. It is used idiomatically to 
convey a special meaning completely different from the meaning expressed by the verb or 
the particle. The same verb followed by different particles conveys different meanings. 
Some phrasal verbs have objects and some don't. 

Task 5: 

A list of phrasal verbs and their meanings is given below. Learn them carefully and use 
them in sentences of your own: 

Phrasal verb 


Back out 


Break down 

Fail, stop working 

Call for 


Call off 


Look after 

Take care of 

Look down 

Hate, despise 

Put by 


Put off 


Set in 


Set out 


Task 6: 

Use the correct form of run with any of these particles to fill in the blanks. The first 
one is done for you. 




out of 


1 . At least one person is run down by a car on our road every month. 

2. The board at the ration shop announced, "We have rice. Wait till the 

next stock." 

3. "I have prepared my chemistry lessons," said Nina, "but let me the 

equations again." 

4. In the to the elections, some of the candidates dropped out of the race. 

5. The car the boy but he escaped unhurt. 

6. The policeman 

7. The girl 

the thief but he escaped. 

carrying the basket with her. 

8. Unable to park in the narrow area, he a nearby car. 

Task 7: 

Fill in the blanks with the appropriate phrasal verbs given in brackets. Use the correct 
tense forms of the verbs. 

break in 

break down 

break out 

break through 

break up 

1 . The bus 

on the way due to some mechanical problem and we had 

to walk all the way. 

2. When the USSR in 1992, the former Republics formed the 

Commonwealth of Independent States. 

3. Though the enemy's defences were strong, our soldiers them. 

4. When the inmates were away, burglars 

5. The Second World War that in 1939 came to an end in 1945 when the 

USA dropped two atom bombs each on Nagasaki and Hiroshima in Japan. 

Task 8: 

Rewrite the following sentences substituting the bold lettered words with the phrasal 
verbs given below. Use the correct tense form of the verb. 

wipe out 

call off 

take off 

switch on 

seal off 

put on 

1 . He removed his coat and relaxed in an armchair. 

2. She wore her new dress for the birthday party. 

3. The earthquake completely destroyed all the houses in the city. 

4. The police blocked all the exit points of the city, after a gang of robbers had looted 
a jewellery shop. 

5. After an agreement was reached, the workers discontinued their strike. 

Task 9: 

Use one word for the phrasal verb underlined in the following sentence: 

1. He put on a gray shirt and black pants. 

2. We called on my cousin in Vellore on our way back home. 


3. The boy scouts set out on a trip to the jungle 

4. The farmers' revolt was put down by the 

5. The rains had set in. 


Underline the prepositional phrases in the 
paragraph following the example given 

Although my room in our residence is small, it 
is very cozy. On the single bed under the window 
is a spread-sheet quilted by my grandmother 
before her death. Beside the bed is a small 
bookcase that was filled with my books and 

The Difference 

Words used as prepositions are 
also used as particles in 
phrasal verbs. But they 
perform different functions 
and have different structures. 

e.g: The word "from" is a 
preposition in the sentence. 
"He comes ffomMadurai", (It 
shows direction) but it is a 
particle in "He comes from a 
good family" (Here it is used 

e.g: In residence. 
Phrase One: 

in residence 

begins with the preposition in and ends with the noun residence. 

Phrase Two 

Quick Hints: Prepositional Phrase 

A prepositional phrase will begin with a preposition and end with a noun , pronoun , 

gerund , or clause , the "object" of the preposition. 
A prepositional phrase will function as an adjective or adverb . As an adjective, the 

prepositional phrase will answer the question Which one? 

Remember that a prepositional phrase will never form the subject of a sentence. 


Task 10: 

In the following sentences, find the prepositions, the objects of the prepositions and the 
complete prepositional phrases. Draw a grid like the one given below in your notebook. 
Chart your findings following the example given. 

1 . The writing of the letter was hard for Rahul and me. 

2. Naveen wanted a pair of socks for himself. 

3. In our letter we indicated the articles by number. 

4. Finally the package arrived at my house. 

5. We tore the paper off the box. 


Object of preposition 

Prepositional phrase 


the letter 

for Rahul and me. 

Task 11: 

Find the prepositional phrases in these easy sentences. 

Then chart out the sentences. 

• Radar helps in distress. 

• Airplanes can fly through storms. 

• They can land in darkness. 

• The teacher treats the children with kindness. 

Prepositional Chain Drill 

Task: 12 

• Take a small object, such as a pen, and do something with it, then describe your action. 
(Put the pen on the desk and say, "I put the pen on the desk.") 

• Give the pen to a student and ask him/her, "What did I do with the pen?" 

• The student answers and then does something different with the object that involves a 
different preposition of place. 

• The student then passes the object to the next student and asks, "What did we do with 
the pen?" That student says what the teacher did and what the first student did with the 
object. The second student then does something different with the object before passing 
it to the third student. 



Teacher : I put the pen on the desk. What did I do with the pen ? 

Ramesh : ou put the pen on the desk. I put the pen above my head. What did we do with 

the pen ? 
Reshma : The teacher put the pen on the desk. Ramesh put the pen above his head. I 

put the pen under my book. (To the next student ) What did we do with the 

pen ? etc. 

This activity continues until no one can do something different with the pen that can be 
described using a preposition of place. 


Task 13: 

1. Divide the class into pairs. Give each pair a copy of the worksheet or other similar 

2. The pairs read the sentence about the picture and decide if they are correct or incorrect 
in their preposition usage. If they are incorrect, the members of the other groups 
must correct them. 


With your partner, decide whether the sentences describing the picture are correct or 
incorrect. If they are incorrect correct them. Then underline the prepositional phrases. 

1 . The bird is on the umbrella. 

2. The hammock is between a tree and a pole. 

3. The dog is under the table. 

4. The cat is under the table. 

5. The baby is beside the father. 

6. The chairs are under the table. 

7. The man is behind the grill. 




Look at the picture and write down five sentences using the prepositional phrases 
given below. 

1) In front of 2) at the back of 3) by the side of 4) on the top of 5) at the far end of 

In the passage below, circle all the prepositions and underline the objects of the 

Vivek drives his son to school in Chennai. He then attends his work at a company. 
After work, he picks up his son from the school, and they go for a walk on the beach or 
they go around the shops. 



Defining relative clauses 
Getting Started: 

1. You're going to read three stories about a cat, a dog and some monkeys. Read the 
stories and identify the relative pronouns in each story. 

A dog lover from Bombay who rescued a lost dog returned home to find 
it had eaten his 1000 rupee note which he had saved to buy a new 

Monkeys which annoy people in the North Indian state of Punjab are 
being locked up in a special jail and held until they are ready for release 
back into society. 

A cat feeder, probably for people, who secretly hate their cats, was 
introduced in 1979. It was a plastic machine that made feeding the cat 
a simple job. You put food into the feeder and it would automatically 
give it to the cat. Great idea for a pet owner - but not so great for the 
cat. The lid of the feeder would often fall down while the cat was 
eating and hit it on the nose. 

The relative pronouns used are: 




2. Find these words in the above texts: who, which and that. Which of these words are 
referred to : 

a) animal 

b) people 

c) things 

There was this man that loved animals, and one day he found a dog wandering 
around in the street and he took him home with him. He left the dog in his house 
while he went out shopping and when he came home he had a bit of a shock. The 
stupid dog had eaten Rs 1000 that he had saved to buy a new computer. 


Monkeys which annoy people in the northern Indian state of Punjab are being 
locked up in a special jail. (Not all monkeys in the Punjab, just these 
specific monkeys) 

Read the spoken version of the dog story and answer the question: 
Can "that" be used for things and people? 

Using the answers to 1 and 2 above, complete this sentence: 

a) and b) can be used to describe people, and c) and 

d) can be used to refer to things or animals. 

i 1 

Quick Hints: Relative Clause 

A relative clause — also called an adjective or adjectival clause - will meet three 

First, it will contain a subject and verb . Next, it will begin with a relative pronoun 
[who, whom, whose, that, or which] or a relative adverb [when, where, or why]. 
Finally, it will function as an adjective , answering the questions What kind? How 
' many? or Which one? 

Words like whom, that and which in relative clauses are called relative pronouns. The 
chart below shows what they refer to. 

Relative Pronouns/Relative Adverbs 

Refers to: 

Who (or whom in formal English when 
it replaces an object ); that (Usually in 
spoken English) 

People: (and sometimes pet animals): 
There's the woman who / that told me. 
There are several people whom I need to 
talk about. It was my dog who / that chased 
the cat, not yours. 

Which and that 

Things: Flowers which / that attract bees 
are good for gardens. 

Where (=in which) 

Places: It's a place where time seems to 
stand still. Also in descriptions of stories and 
films: There's a scene where the hero nearly 


Time:It was just after 9.00 when he got 


People (Possessives):The people whose 
daughter I look after are moving away. 


Reason: And that's the reason why we're 


Getting it right 

Task: 1 Relative Pronoun 

Identify the relative pronoun in each sentence below and explain what it refers to. 



Example: I don't know the man that Sarah's talking to, do I? 


The man 

1. What's the name of that TV channel which shows classic 

2. As a vegetarian, there aren't many things that I can eat in 
that restaurant. 

3. Did you hear about the man who was trying to fly round the 
world in a balloon? 

4. Which is the best holiday that you've ever had? 

5. The doctor has given me some new antibiotics which are 
better than the old ones. 

6. That's the woman who told me about the job. 

Task: 2 

Match the two halves of the sentence and then link them with a suitable relative pronoun. 

Example: This is one occasion (when) 

A) I mean? 

1. Who's that woman 

B) I feel you can trust. 

2. Do vou know 

C) we went swimming and that boy 
pushed you in the water? 

3. She's someone 

D) she said. 

4. The trainer gave him some exercises 

E) always waits at the bus stop? 

5. Do vou remember the time 

F) were aimed at improving his 

6. I can't remember 

G) we should work together for the 
good of the company 

7. This is the place 

H) I met my friend for the first time. 

Task 3: Complete each conversation with a suitable relative clause. 
Example: A : Do you want to go out with us on a picnic? 

B : I'd love to, but there are a few things which I have to do. 

I've decided what I want for my birthday. I want that shirt I told you about. The 
one that 

1. A 


2. A 

Oh, well, I'm afraid I've already got your present. 
Are you going anywhere during the holidays? 
Yes, we are. We're going to a lovely place where - 


3. A : I saw Uma yesterday. 

B : Who's Uma? Well, is she the one 

does the news programme on all Friday nights? 

A : Yes. Have you seen any good films lately? 

B : Yes, I saw a good one on TV last week. There was a brilliant scene where — 

4. A 

What are you listening to? 
It's the CD that 

Oh yes, of course. I'm glad you like it. I couldn't decide what to give you, but 
when I heard this, I thought it would be ideal 

Task 4: 

Form sentences with relative clauses about the people in the pictures, using information 
from Boxes B, and C: 

l.Who was Mahatma Gandhi ?. 
2.Who is Abdul Kalam ?. 
3. Who was Marconi ? 

4. Who was Sir CV Raman ? 

5. Who was Albert Einstein ? 

6. Who was Nelson Mandela ? 


1 . Albert Einstein invented the 
Theory of Relativity. 

2. Nelson Mandela was in a South 
African prison for 27 years. 

3. Mahatma Gandhi won freedom for 
our nation. 

4. Abdul Kalam won Bharat Ratna in 

5. Marconi invented the radio. 

6. Sir CV.Raman discovered the 
effect of rays on the sea. 

1 . Albert Einstein was an Austrian who 
invented the Theory of Relativity. 



Indian from Tamil Nadu, American 
Austrian South African and Englishman 



Getting Started: 

1 . Read the article about a businessman, Reuben Singh. What is unusual about him? 

Reuben Singh, who is worth about £14 million, hands the phone to his 
accountant. 'Most newspapers, ' says the accountant, 'state that Reuben is worth 15 
million. We are a bit conservative and say 14 million. It is still rather a lot. . especially 
for a 19-year-old, 'he adds before passing the phone back to the teenage businessman, 
who coughs quietly. Singh is the owner of the Miss Attitude Retail Group, which 
supplies fashion jewellery and accessories. He is also a student at Manchester 
Metropolitan University,studying for a degree in financial services. Last year, when 
he was still worth only ten million, he was running his own business while studying 
for exams at William Hulme Grammar School in Manchester. He opened the first 
Miss Attitude shop in Manchester less than a year ago; now he has 14 shops with 
another 16 planned for next year. He points out that he is the only teenager who has 
set up a company for his own age group. 

2. Find and underline all the clauses in the above passage starting with who, which 
and when. 


Defining Relative Clauses versus Non-defining Relative Clauses 

Defining Relative Clauses 

Some Hints 


1. I've never met anyone who can type 
as fast as you can. 

2. The magazine which arrived this 
morning is five days late. 

Defining relative clauses tell us which 
person or thing we mean. They give us 
essential information which we cannot 

Non-defining Relative Clauses 

Some Hints 


1 . Our teacher, who teaches us well, 
has won an award. 

2. The novel, which is read all over the 
world, was first published in London. 

Non-defining relative clauses add extra 
information. If we omit the extra 
information, we won't seriously change 
the meaning. We use commas before and 
after them. 

Look at the relative clause in this sentence: 

Reuben Singh, who is worth about £14 million, hands the phone to his accountant. 
The non-defining relative clause gives extra information. The sentence is still meaningful 
without it: Reuben Singh hands the phone to his accountant. 

Compare it with this defining relative clause: 

... he is the only teenager who has set up a company for his own age group. 

This relative clause is essential to make the sentence meaningful. It distinguishes this 
teenager from others. 

Looking at language: 

Who, (and its other form whom) is used as a relative pronoun with people, and which is 

used with things. 

e.g: He is the man who came yesterday. 

The man whom I saw is here. 

The book which I read is there. 
That can be used instead of which or who. However, that, unlike which or who, is used 
to define a thing or person from among others. Notice the difference between these two 

• My brother, who is in Mumbai, sent me this book. 

• My brother that is in Mumbai sent me this book. 


In the first sentence who introduces a non-defining clause: it merely tells us something 
additional about the writer's brother: he is in Mumbai. It can be seen that he may be the 
writer's only brother. In the second sentence 'that' introduces a defining clause: one that 
distinguishes between several things or people. It can be seen that the writer has several 
brothers but he is singling out the particular one he has in Bombay. Thus in clauses which 
are purely descriptive and non-defining, which and who should be used. 

e.g: The teacher, who joined yesterday, is from Madurai. 
The tree, which, fell on the road, was removed. 

Notice that such clauses are separated from the rest of the sentence by commas, 
while defining clauses are not. 

Task 1: 

Fill in the blanks, with 'who' or 'which' wherever necessary. 

a. Please give me the name of the mechanic repaired your TV. 

b. Is that the woman gave tea and blankets to the refugees? 

c. The car we have just bought is air-conditioned. 

d. Was it your mother started a dispensary in this village? 

e. I want to congratulate the man planted a hundreds trees in 

this colony. 

f. This is not the shop sells handicrafts from different parts of 

the country. 

Task 2: 

Combine the sentences using a relative clause 

1 . The boy is swimming. He is my brother. 

2. The Taj Mahal is in Agra. It is visited by many people. 

3. The man is an engineer. He lives next door. 

4. The shop was destroyed by fire. It has been rebuilt. 

5. You lost a chain. Have you found the chain? 

6. I met a girl. Her mother is a doctor. 

Getting it right: 

Exercise 1 Defining and non-defining relative clauses 

Underline the relative clause in each sentence, and say if it is defining or non-defining. 

Then answer the question about the sentence. 

e.g: The house, which is beautiful, stands near the river. Non-defining 
Which is the main information, a) or b)? 

a) The house is beautiful. b) The house stands near the river. Ans: b 

1. My sister, who had been sitting still for a very tong time , finally spoke. 
Does the sentence make sense if you leave out the relative clause? 


2. The woman who was standing in the corner finally left, but the other women stayed 

Is the sentence all right if you leave out the relative clause? 

3. A boy, who was wearing a jacket, was seen running away from the burning 
car Which is the main information, a) or b)? 

a) The boy was wearing a jacket. 

b) The boy was seen running away from the burning car. 

4. I've got a new job which is wonderful. 
What is wonderful, a) or b)? 

a) The job itself, b) Having a new job. 

5. The chairs, which at first looked old and dirty, were very valuable. 
Which is the main information, a) or b)? 

a) The chairs were old and dirty, b) The chairs were very valuable. 

Exercise-2: Building sentences: 

Make sentences by joining the boxes using non-defining relative clauses. 

His coat, which was new, was green. 

The hotel costs Rs 3000 per night, 
which is expensive. 





Rs 3000 
per night 





too long 







are yellow 








two young 


Exercise-3: Learning from learners: 

Rewrite each learner's extract as one sentence using a defining or non-defining relative 



• While I was there I met a really interesting man. He told me all about his travels in 

• While I was there I met a really interesting man who told me all about his travels in 
Asia. (Defining) 


1. We went to this wonderful holiday complex. There was a huge pool and a fitness 

2. The pool was used for training by Olympic athletes. It was over 100 meters long. 

3. Our room had a fantastic view over the beach. The room had a large balcony. 

4. There were lots of insects. They kept me awake at nights with their buzzing and 

5. Goa has a beautiful golden beach. The beach is always crowded. 


Write as required below on a piece of paper. Add a relative clause to it: 

Step 1 : Take a long piece of paper. Write the following sentence: " One day a thirsty 

crow was looking for water." Let the student add a relative clause to it. 
Step 2 : Let the completed answer be folded in such a way that the next student cannot 

see the previous answer. 
Step 3 : Write another sentence with a relative clause in it. 

Continue like this until the task is completed. 

Tendulkar is an Indian Cricketer. He has scored 
the maximum centuries in One Day cricket 

2 sentences 




Tendulkar is an Indian Cricketer who has scored 
the maximum centuries in One Day cricket 

1 sentence 

I saw a 


It had three puppies 

2 sentences 



that or which 

I saw a 


that had three puppies 

I saw a 


which had three puppies 

1 sentence 



Getting Started: 

Match extracts 1, 2 and 3 to the correct headings, a), b) or c) 

a) What a Winner! B) Jupiter, Saviour of the World c) Bat Talk 

1. Heading: 

If a large comet hit the Earth, humans would very soon die out. If it hit the 
land, it would cause earthquakes worldwide, knocking down almost every 
building. If it landed in the deepest ocean, it would send waves thousands of 
feet high over surrounding continents. A minimum of a billion people might 
die. But Jupiter helps to stop such disasters. 

2. Heading: 

MARGARET JONES, 56, can't seem to stop winning. She has won two out 
of the three competitions she has entered this year, and now she has won the 
lottery too! Ok, so she didn't win the top prize, but she's not unhappy with 
her Euro 50,000. 'Margaret is amazing. 'If she enters a competition, she wins' 
says husband Mike. 

3. Heading: 

The rat lost its way in the room. It turned left and found there a cat near the 
door. So it turned right; there it saw a dog sleeping. "If it had not turned right, 
the dog would not have caught the rat", says the bat on the roof. 

Which of the 'if sentences describe real, possible situations? 
Which describe unreal or imaginary situations? 
Does any refer to the past? 

Looking at language: 

Conditional Sentences 

Conditional sentences usually have an if clause (the conditions) and another clause (the 
result): If a large enough comet hit the Earth (condition), humans would very soon die 
out (result). The 'if clause can come either before or after the result clause. 

There are three common types of conditional sentences depending on the time namely 
present, past, future, and the degree of possibility and certainty. 


Three Types of Conditional Sentences 
1. First Conditional : Possible ( Probable )/Real/ Open /Factual condition 

If clause (Subordinate Clause) 

Independent Clause 

If '+pre sent tense 

(then)+future tense with will or modal verbs 

such as may/can/might/should+mfnutiye. 

Eg: If students study systematically, they will get good marks. 

Meaning: This expresses a possible condition in the future with a reasonably likely 

More Examples 

a) If I drop this glass, it will break. 

b) If you send an SMS now, it will reach him immediately. 

In this type of sentences the condition in the 'if clause may or may not be fulfilled. The 
present tense refers only to a possible future action. 

Task 1: Functions 




If we don 't leave now, we '11 miss the train. 



If you want, I'll wash the dishes. 




If you touch that wire, you'll get an electric shock. 




If you don't stop doing that, I'll get angry. 




If you explain why you did it, he'll understand. 




If you turn it round the other way, it'll fit. 



Task 2 : 

Imagine you are a team captain of a game and your team is going to play a match. Advise 
your team in a few sentences on how to play the match using statements of open conditions 
Type 1 . e.g: If you stay together, you will win the match. 

Task 3: If it's sunny... 

Work in groups of three or four. Take turns to continue one of these sequences. After each 
sentence, the group should ask what will happen next, e.g: 
A - If I go to the park, I'll play with my friends. 

Group - What will you get if you play with your friends? 
B - If I play with my friends, I'll be happy. 

Group - What will happen if you are happy? 
C - If lam happy, I'll be healthy. 

Group - What will happen, if you are healthy? 


If it rains tomorrow... 

If I study hard 

If we win the match 

If we save enough 

If I learn Java. 

2. Second Conditional : Hypothetical / Improbable / Unreal/ Imaginary condition 

If clause (Subordinate Clause) 

Independent Clause 

If+simple past 


eg: If I won the contest, I would give you a treat. 

Meaning: This expresses imaginary, hypothetical situations; talking about a possible 
event in the future, but results are only remotely likely to happen. 

More Examples: 

• If I were in your position, I would not do such a foolish thing. 

• If I had a first class ticket, I could travel comfortably. 

• If I were an eagle, I might build my nest on this high sea- facing cliff. 

Task 4: 
What if.... 

Supposing you could meet anyone you wanted, alive or dead, who would it be? Why? 
What would you say to him/her? 

If you could live in another place and time in history, what would it be? 

In small groups, brainstorm some endings for these sentences. Choose the best from your 
group and write the whole sentence down. (Ask the groups to read out their ideas and 
invite the class to choose their favourites.) 

If the world was flat... 

If animals could speak... 

If we were all clones... 

If cows could fly... 

If you had two heads... 

If money grew on trees ... 

If nobody knew how to read... 

If there was no money... 

If I gave you ten lakh rupees, what would you do with it? Write a list of five things. 
Read out your list. 

Task 5: 

On a piece of paper, write the first part of an "if. . ." sentence and give it to another student 
to complete. 


If I met the President of India face to face 


If cigarettes were banned 



If human beings lived for 150 years ... 


If I had only six months to live. 

If I saw a snake... 

Task 6: Transform the sentences as directed. 

1. If you study, you will pass (change to type 2). 

2. If I had learnt swimming, I would have been able to save some flood victims ( 
change to type 1). 

3. If you upheld values, you would not be corrupted (change to type 3). 

3. Third Conditional : Unfulfilled / Impossible condition. 

If clause (Subordinate Clause) 

Independent Clause 

If + past perfect 

(then)+would have/might have/could have 
+past participle 

e.g: If I had studied well, I would have got good marks, (or) Had I studied well, 
I would have got good marks. 

Meaning: This indicates imaginary past situations and speculates what might have 
been; this condition is used to express past mistakes, past wishes etc. 

More Examples: 

a. If the boys had practised a little more, they would have won the match. 

b. If I had won the contest, I would have given you a treat. 

Task 7: 


• In pairs, talk about your childhood and speculate about how things might have been 

e.g. If I had worked harder at school, I could have got a better job. 

If we had lived in the country instead of a big city, my parents wouldn't have worried 
about my safety so much. 

• In pairs, think about some recent events in the news. Discuss how they might have 
been different. 

e.g. If they had built the bridge properly, it wouldn't have fallen down in the earthquake. 
If the referee had been fair, Brazil would have won the football match. 


Task 8: Write "if.. " sentences based on the remarks below. 

Why didn't tell me you were ill? 

Ans: If you had told me you were ill, I would have visited you. 

Sorry, I didn't know it was your 
birthday party. 


It's a pity the weather was so bad. 

It's a good thing they didn't open 
my suitcase. 

I didn't have any more money 
with me. 

Task 9: Identify the type of 'if clause used in each of the following sentences: 

1 . Your parents will be unhappy if you lie to them. 

2. If I had known how to solve those problems, I would have finished my class work 
on time. 

3. If Rahul had asked for more money, I would have surely lent him some. 

4. He would study abroad if he won a merit scholarship. 

5. If you do well in the examination, you will score high marks. 

6. If nature gave us another living planet, would we use it more sensibly? 

Task 10: 

Getting the form right: Second Conditional 

Write answers for questions 1-3 below, and write suitable questions for answers 4-6. 

e.g.: How would your friend feel if you always wore the same clothes as him? 
He'd probably get quite annoyed with me. 

1. What would you do if you found Rs 1000 in the street? 

2. What would you do if you were lost in a crowd? 

3. Where would you live if you could live anywhere in the world? 

e. g. : How would you feel if you came first in all your exams? 

4. I'd be really happy, but I'd probably feel a bit sorry for my friends who didn't do as 
well as me. 

5. I'd probably scream and run away, although actually I don't believe in things like 

6. I wouldn't touch it. I'd call for help and move away from it. 


How will you use classroom situations to teach Conditionals? 



Getting Started: 
Task 1: 

Read the reviews for the book Harry Potter and the 
Philosopher's Stone by J.K.Rowling Underline one word 
in each review that shows the speaker liked the book. 


an J the Pbito.iopber'j Stone 

\ ! ^^^JL 

T think Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone is brilliant. Once you start reading 
you can't stop. My Mum kept telling me off because every night I was using up the 
electricity till very late. I didn't want to stop until I'd reached the very end.' 

'I love Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone. Before I read this book my parents 
had to force me to spend time in reading something. I preferred watching TV or 
playing computer games. Now I want to read all the Harry Potter books.' 

'Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone is a spectacular book. The story goes straight 
to your head. It's very funny. It made me wish I were a wizard. I'd love to make up 
magic spells.' 

These verbs in the texts - start, keep, want, force, prefer, make, love - are all followed by 
another verb. Put them in the right column in the chart following the examples given. 

Verb + to + infinitive 

Verb + object + to +infinitive 

want to stop 

force me to spend 

Verb + -ing form 

Verb + object + infinitive 

start reading 

made me wish 


Quick Hints: Infinitive 

We often use the base form of a verb (go) as an infinitive. We call this the bare 
infinitive because we use it without 'to'. We must distinguish it from the 
to-infinitive, where we always use 'to' in front of the base form of the verb (to go). 

The most common use of the bare infinitive is after modal verbs.e.g. He may 
go. She can help. 

Looking at language: 

When 'to' is added to a verb,it is an infinitive. 
e.g: to receive 

I am happy to receive a letter from my brother. 

An infinitive can be the subject, object, and complement of a sentence. 
Infinitive used as a subject 

To err is human. 

To forgive is divine. 

To drink water is good for health. 

Infinitive used as an object 
He likes to play football. 
We want to speak English. 
I wish to know his name. 

Infinitive used as a complement 

My ambition is to become a doctor. 

Our aim is to teach well. 

Our objective is to complete the task by next week. 

Verb + object +infinitive 

Most verbs and particularly verbs of persuading, asking, wanting and ordering are followed 
by the "object-and-infinitive" construction. 

I want you to go away. 
He persuaded his friend to do it unaided. 
The director told him to increase sales. 
We asked our client to help us. 


Infinitive without to 

There are also some verbs which take the infinitive without to. 
These are: 

1. Modal Verbs: may, must, can, should, will, would, etc. 

You must do this research quickly. 
This firm can't manufacture umbrellas. 
He shouldn't carry all that money about. 

2. The verbs let and make and have: 

Let me tell you. 

We had the waiter take the cups away. 
I can't make him understand. 
Please let us come in. 

3. Notice, however, that in the passive make does take to: 
He was made to finish his work. 
The girls were made to come home early. 

Task 2: 

• The class is divided into pairs. Each pair is allotted a list of ten places given in the box. 
The students have to take turns to ask and answer the questions in the following way. 

Student A: 

e.g. Why did you go to the bank? 

Student B: 

/ went there to withdraw some money. 

Similarly each pair of students has to make sentences using the words and write them 


Later the teacher can write down the sentences on the blackboard. 

theatre, station, cinema, cafe, bakery, chemist, travel agency, post office, hospital 

Task 3: 

Fill in the blanks with the correct forms of the verbs. 

How to Get Rid of Rats 

When I was a young man, working in Malaya, my boss gave me a difficult job 
to do. The roof of his house had become infested with rats and he (want/I get rid 
of) wanted me to get rid of them for him. I tried everything: rat poison, cats, even a 

mongoose, but I (fail/remove) them. Then a friend of mine (advise/I use) 

a python. I (considered this/be) my last chance and (agree/ 

try) it. My friend brought me a box in which he had trapped a young 

python, about six feet long. We (manage/get) the box into the roof and 


then released the python. The effect was amazing! The rats disappeared in no time! 

It ( prove/be) a wonderful solution. But then we didn't know (what/ 

do) with the python. It( take / six of us an hour/get) it into 

the box and then we returned it to the jungle. 

Task 4: 
Why bother? 

In pairs, think of reasons for doing these things, 

e.g. write - We are writing this letter to convey our greetings to you. (reason) 

Make sentences using the verbs in the box in the infinitive form. 

study, drink coffee, run, think, breathe, cook, sleep, work, go to the gym, learn English, 
eat, have a bath. 


Gerunds are verbal nouns. They are derived from verbs, (ie) 'ing' is added to verbs (eg. 
Walking, smoking, sleeping.) 

Gerunds as Subject: 

Walking is a good exercise 
Bathing daily is a good habit 
Smoking is a bad habit. 
Drinking alcohol is banned in Gujarat. 

Gerund as object: 

I like reading novels. 

My friend has stopped talking to me. 

Gerund as object complement: 

Seeing is believing. 

It is not worth reading. 

It is something worth buying. 

Gerunds are used with preposition: 

I am fond of eating chocolates. 
I am fond of drinking Fanta. 
I am interested in reading comics. 
I am interested in watching movies. 
I am interested in dancing. 

Quick Hints: Gerund 

Every gerund, without exception, ends in ing. We can use the -ing form (gerund) 
like any other noun . Thus, gerunds can be subjects , subject complements , direct 
objects , , indirect objects , and objects of prepositions . Present participles, on the 
other hand, complete progressive verbs or act as modifiers . 


Verb+-ing form: 

These following verbs are followed by the -ing form of the second verb: 

avoid can't help can't stand consider deny enjoy feel likefinish give 
up hate imagine keep like love mindpractice prefer put off suggest 


• Avoid telling lies. 

• I can't help pitying him. 

We can group some of these verbs like this: 

Like and dislike verbs: like, love, mind, can't, stand, enjoy, hate, prefer 

e.g. I don't like getting up early. 

Time verbs: Start, stop, continue, begin, put off 
e.g. I began taking singing lessons as a child. 

Some verbs - like, love begin, start, continue - can be followed by either the infinitive or 
the - ing form. 

e.g. I like sailing. / 1 like to sail. 

She began having lessons. / She began to have lessons. 

Verb+gerund or infinitive 

The verbs like and love take the infinitive when referring to a particular action and 
the gerund when speaking of a more general one. 

e.g. I would like to go to the play tonight. (Particular). 
I like going to the theatre. (General). 
We would love to meet him. (Particular). 
We love meeting friends. (General). 

Tasks 6: 

Fill in the blanks with either gerunds or infinitives using the verbs in the brackets 

1. Babu would like (meet) you. 

2. Do you like (drive)? 

3. I travel a lot. I love (travel) 

4. I enjoy (dance) 

5. Where do you want (go)? 

6. What have you decided (do)? 

7. Why did you start (cry)? 

8. Have you finished (clean) the kitchen. 


Verbs of sensation 

Verbs of sensation like see,watch,hear x feel,smell etc take the gerund or the infinitive 
without to. 

Consider these examples: 



I saw him crossing the street. 

I saw him cross the street 



Here I saw an action that was going 
on but not yet finished 

Here I have seen the action finished; 
he has reached the other side of the street 

Task 5: 

Choosing the correct form 

Read the stories and fill in the blanks with verbs from the box in the correct form( infinitive 
or gerund). 


keep away 




1) The doors were just about to close on the underground train when I saw a pigeon 

hop in. The tourists wanted (1) it with crisps , but the bird 

wasn't interested . It appeared (2) where it 

was going and as the doors opened at the next station, it flew out. 

2) On 29 January a worried resident of Srirengapatnam saw a cobra 

(3) motionless by the sides of the road. He rang the local animal 

hospital and was advised not (4) near it. As the man waited for 

help he warned other people (5) When a man arrived from the animal 

hospital in full protective clothing and approached the snake, he realized it was an 
old car exhaust pipe. 


In pairs, think of three activities. Write a sentence about each one explaining why 
you do it. Read out the reason for the class to guess the activity, e.g. I do this to relax 
after a day at the office (have a bath). 



Read the questionnaire. What are your answers to the questions in it? Are any of them 
the same as the great tennis star Sania Mirza's answers? 


What is your physical training regime 

I get up at 5.30 am and go for physical 
training. I do about three hours of physical 
fitness training in a day. 

What do you enjoy doing in your spare 

I like being at home just watching a movie 
or surfing the Net. 

What surfing do you actually do? 

Usually I see That's a 
good site. 

Do you listen to music? 

I listen to it, but not a lot of it. 

What colours do you like? 

Black, red and blue. 

Do you have a large circle of friends? 

Not large and it is hard for me to stay in 
touch with many people. Only a few 

Are the speakers in the conversation given below friends or family? Who is who? 

A. Daddy, what do you want? 

B. Have you got a spoon? What do you want, Kumar? 

A. Some of the rice, daddy? 

B. Here you are. Why are you looking like that, Meena? Are you OK? 

C. I am tired , dad. I want to go to bed. 

B. OK Good Night. 

C. Good Night, dad. 
A. Good Night, Meena. 

Underline all the questions in the questionnaire in the Task 1 and the conversation 
in Task 2. 


Looking at the language: 

An auxiliary verb comes before the subject in a question. The rest of the verb group 
comes after the subject. 





waiting for the bus? 



finished the work? 

When there is no auxiliary in the statement, we use auxiliary do -^infinitive in the question 



I like cricket. 

Do vou like cricket? 

They went to Kashmir for their holiday. 

Where did thev go for their holiday? 

Quick Hints 

We do not use do in a question if there is another auxiliary or modal verb, or with 

the verb to be. 

e.g. Have you had lunch yet? Can Prem speak Telugu? What is your phone number? 

Yes or No questions begin with an auxiliary verb: 
e.g. Do you want any more? 

Wh- questions begin with a wh-word 

(who, what, which, why, when, where, how) and ask for imformation. 

e.g. What do you want, Kumar? 

Task 3: 

Ram is being interviewed for a job. Look at the interviewer's notes and Ram's answers, 
then write the questions the interviewer is asking Ram. 

Interviewer's Notes 


Ram's Answers 



How old are vou? 

I'm 18. 


Live locally? 

Yes, I do. 



5, MG Road. 


When / leave School 

Last year. 


Which school /go? 

Sivaram High School. 


Work / now? 

Yes. I am. 


Who /work for? 

Sharma Limited. 


How long? 

For six months. 


Enioy / present iob? 

Yes, I do. 


Why / want / Leave? 

The pay isn't good. 


Tell Me More: 

Look at this piece of news. What other details do you want to know? Write some questions. 

e.g. Is it a boy 






Task 4: 

Find someone who .... 

Brief dialogues 

Procedure: The students have one minute to walk around the room and find at least one 
person in the class who was born in the same month as they were; they get one point for 
every person they find in time. Then they have to find someone who was born on the 
same day of the month. Give further similar tasks for as much time as you have seen the 
box for suggestions. At the end, see how many points each student has. 

Box: Find someone who 

Was born on the same date as you. 

Has the same number of brothers as you. 

Has the same number of sisters as you. 

Ate at least two of the same items as you did for breakfast. 

Likes the same favourite colour as you. 

Got up at the same time as you did this morning. 


What questions would you ask in these situations? 

You and your friends are planning a picnic. You need someone who can cook well. 

e.g. : Who can cook well? / Which of you can cook well? 

1 . A friend has just seen a film and you want to know the story-line. 

2. You are discussing a cricket match with a friend. You were most impressed by a 
particular player. What about your friend's opinion? 

3. You're chatting with friends. A chair is squeaking. You find it annoying. 

4. You are at a function and want to go home, but someone's bike is blocking your exit. 
You want to identify the owner of the bike. 

5. You want to identify the students who want to come with you on an excursion. 


• Can question skills improve communication skills? 

• Exchange your views with your friends on the places you have visited and ask one 
another questions on the importance of the places. 



Practice : 

Match column A with Column B by writing the correct numbers in the answer boxes. 

Column A 

Column B 



Raja is Balu's younger brother, 

doesn't he? 



The train has just arrived, 

aren't we? 


You can't swim, 

will he? 


He won't come tomorrow, 

can you? 


We are tall and strong, 

hasn't it? 


He speaks good English, 

isn't he? 

Quick Hints 

• A statement can be turned into a question by adding a question tag at the end of it. 
e.g.: This book is very interesting, isn't it? 

• A question tag is used to check whether something is true, 
e.g.: Your brother is a lawyer, isn't he? 

• There is no short form for 'am not' , so 'aren't' is used to form question tags instead, 
e.g.: I am in the team, aren't I? 

If we want to ask for information we usually use the standard question form. However, 
sometimes we just want to keep a conversation going, or confirm information. In this 
case, question tags are often used to solicit input or confirmation to what we are saying. 
Using question tags well also promotes a keen understanding of the use of various auxiliary 
verbs. For examples: 

1. You are all in class X, aren't you? 

2. It isn't going to rain, is it? 

3. You didn't write the test, did you? 

4. Hard work pays, doesn't it? 

5. He is too young to be your teacher, isn't he? 

In the sentences you will notice that generally there are certain patterns as given below: 

a) An affirmative statement takes a negative tag, and a negative statement takes an 
affirmative tag. 

b) The auxiliary verb of the statement and the tag are generally the same and carry the 
same tense as seen in 1, 2 and 5. 

c) In other statements the auxiliary is added to form the tag question as in example 4. 

d) The statement is followed by a comma and the tag by a question mark. 


Group activity 

Instruction to the teacher: 

• Ask each student to write his/her name on a piece of paper followed by five simple 
statements about himself / herself. For example: I have been in Tamilnadu for four 
years. I live in Chennai. 

• Collect the statements and re-distribute the sheets to different students. Make sure that 
the students keep the sheets upside down until they are called out. 

• Each student then uses the statements to ask question tag questions, to the student who 
has written the statements. For example: You have been in Tamilnadu for four years, 
haven't you? You live in Chennai, don't you? 

Task 2: 

Add suitable question tags. Each question tag should be used only once. 

isn't it?, has he?, were you?, aren't you?, doesn't he?, do you?, is she?, didn't you?, did 
she?, aren't I? 

1. She didn't watch the film last night, 

2. It's great to see each other again, 

3. He comes every Friday, 

4. You're married, 

5. You went to Gopal's last weekend, 

6. You don't like oranges, 

7. He hasn't lived here long, 

8. You weren't invited to the party, 

9. I am reading well, 

10. She isn't very young, 

Task 3: 

Match the sentence halves. 



They enjoyed cooking 

They aren't serious 

a. don't you? 

b. are n't I? 

c. has she? 

d. had they? 

e. isn't it? 

f. does she? 

g. is he? 

h. will they? 
i. are they? 
j. didn't they? 

You live in an apartment 

She doesn't speak Malayalam 

They won't keep quiet 

He isn't concentrating 

They hadn't visited you before 

This music is fantastic 

I am very clever 

She hasn't studied for a week 


Task 4: 

Match the following: 


1 . Your uncle is a good singer 

2. Penguins can't fly 

3. It's a bit cold today 

4. They speak Telugu in Andhra Pradesh 

5. You haven't seen my glasses 



n \ 

-i \ 

- 1 \ 
n \ 




...don't they? 


...isn't it? 


...have you? 


...can they? 


...isn't he? 

Task 5: 

In pairs, choose some of the questions and write short dialogues, e.g. 

A - You know Shiva, don't you? 

B - No, I don't think I've ever met him. 

A - Are you sure? Weren't you at the dentist's yesterday? He was there with toothache. 

B - Oh! Yes, I know him! 


1. When writing question tags, we usually follow these rules: 

a. Use negative question tags with affirmative statements; the verb 'to be' in the 
question tag must be in the negative form of the verb 'to be' in the statement. 

e.g.: It is raining, isn't it? 

They are your classmates, aren't they? 

b. Use short forms 

e.g.: Use 'aren't' instead of 'are not': 
Those shoes are new, aren't they? 

c. Use pronouns, not nouns or noun phrases 
e.g.: Reena is Ram's sister, isn't she? 

Reena is Ram's sister, isn't Reena? 


2. The pronoun in a question tag must agree with the subject of the statement, 
e.g.: Your uncle is a good singer, isn't he? S 


• Create a mock interview and elicit answers from others using question tags. 



Getting started: 

Read one of the extracts from an article about a burglary. Then answer this question: Why was 
the burglary unusual? 

Extract 1: 

'Police? I want to report a burglary. 
Somebody has stolen my house. 

I went to put the key in the door and the 
door had gone, ' Mr McSharry said 
yesterday. 'Not only that, but somebody 
had taken the stone around the door too. 
Inside there was almost nothing left and 
I thought there must have been a 
terrible mistake. It is the worst theft I 
have ever seen. There was nothing left 
but the walls. ' 

The police believe an organized gang 
carried out the theft. 

'It is important the police catch them, ' 
said Mr. McSharry. 'You can replace a 
door but you can't replace a whole 
house. ' 

Extract 2: 

'Police? I want to report a burglary. 
My house has been stolen. 

I went to put the key in the door and 
the door had gone ', Mr. McSharry said 
yesterday. 'Not only had that, but the 
stone around the door had been taken 
too. Inside there was almost nothing 
left and I thought there must have been 
a terrible mistake. It is the worst theft 
I have ever seen. There was nothing 
left but the walls. ' 

The police believe the theft was carried 
out by an organized gang. 

'It is important they are caught, ' said 
Mr. McSharry. " A door can be 
replaced but a whole house can't be 
replaced. " 

Read both extracts and underline any differences you notice. 

Look at the two opening lines. Which opening lines makes the house more important 

than the thief? 

How does it do this? 

Looking at language 

In English a verb can be active or passive. 
Active: The starting point of a clause is 
the person or thing that did something 
(the 'doer'): 

Somebody has stolen my house. Here the 
'doer' is the subject of the sentence. 

Passive: You can use a different starting 

point, not the 'doer'. 

My house has been stolen. Here the 

object is receiving the action of the 


The passive can be used when the 'doer' is known, or not necessary in the information. 
It is important they are caught. (We know it is the police who will try to catch them.) 
This use of the passive is typical. 


• To describe processes - The emphasis is on how something is produced, not who 
does it. 

e.g.: Tea is grown on hillsides, and is harvested twice a year. It is packed locally before 
being exported. 

• In formal writing, especially impersonal letters which focus on what happens, not who 
does it. 

e.g.: The statement was sent to you at the end of January, and you were asked to repay 

the loan by the middle of March. This was not done. 
Complete the sentences using words from each box: 

build paint design write invent 
discover found 

Shajahan Valmiki Columbus Babbage 
Wright Brothers Tagore Mother Teresa 

1. Taj Mahal was built by Shajahan. 

2. America 

3. Computers 

4. The first aircraft 

5. Gitanjali 

6. The Sisters of Charity 

Task 2: 

Choosing the best from the following: 

Underline the correct verb form 

e.g.: The gallery has over 1,000 paintings. These have been collected / have collected 
during the last 100 years. 


1. He was a collector as well as an artist. He collected/ was collected nearly 1,000 

2. The first pocket calculator weighed almost a kilogram. Its inventor invited / was 
invited to trade fairs all over the world. 

3. These beautiful clocks assemble / are assembled by hand. 

4. Visitors are advising / are being advised to stay away from the city centre at night. 

5. The five prisoners who escaped last week have caught / have been caught. 

Task 3: 

Active or passive? 

Fill in the blanks with the verb in brackets. Use the active or passive in a suitable tense. 

e.g. : 500 million servings of coca-cola (consume) are consumed worldwide every year. 

1 . 94 per cent of the world' s population (recognize) the coca-cola trademark. 

2. 109 is the number of years since Coca-cola (invent) 

3. 148 litres (consumed) by the average British every year. 

4. The average American (drink) 275 litres every year. 

5. Coca-cola (sell) in 195 countries around the world. 

6. Seven billion servings of Coca-cola's produce (these include Cherry Coke, Fanta, 
Sprite) (consume) in Britain last year. 

Task 4: 

Text completion 

Read Extract 2 in 'Getting Started' again. 
'Police? I want to report a burglary. My house has been stolen. 

I went to put the key in the door and the door (1)' Mr McSharry said yesterday. 

'Not only that, but the stone around the door (2) too. Inside there was 

almost nothing left and (3) there must have been a terrible mistake. It is 

the worst theft I (4) .There was nothing left but the walls.' The police 

believe the theft (5) by an organized gang. 'It is important (6) 'said 

Mr McSharry. 'You can , (7) but you can't (8)'. 

Then fill in gaps 1-8, choosing the active or passive voice. The boxes of nouns / pronouns 
and verbs will help you. 


a door 

the door 




a whole 


carry out 









Think of a book, film or building. Describe it to others in your group, using Passive 
Voice and the word 'it' before the verbs as the starting point of the sentence. The others 
have to guess what you are talking about. 



• It was built about 100 years ago in New York. It's very tall, and it was designed to 
show people that they had arrived in New York. Ans: It is the Statue of Liberty. 

• It was written by a Tamil poet about 1000 years ago, and it is in the form of a couplet. 
It is meaningful and full of wisdom. Ans: I think it is the Thirukkural. 

Task 5: 

Look at the pictures and change the given verbs into passive form: 



(the tree / cut down) The trees has been cut down . 

.(the puncture / mend) 

.(bee /sting) 

Famous people 

Draw two columns on the board and fill the grid with the words given below with one 
column containing details of discoveries, book etc and the other verbs. Divide the class 
into two groups. The students in the A group will read out an item in the A Column and 


the students in the B group have to come out with sentences using the item in the A 
column with a verb from the B column in passive form. 

In return the student in the B group will read out a verb in the box in the B Column and 
the students in the A group have to make sentences using passive voice. The group with 
the maximum number of correct answers will be the winner. 

e.g.: Group A: Radio Activity 

Group B : Radio Activity was invented by Madame Curie. 

Column A 

Column B 

Thirukural, Theory of Relativity, Theory of Gravity, dynamite, 
Mona Lisa, television, Taj Mahal, My Experiments with Truth, 
Penicillin, telephone, theory of evolution, printing, radioactivity 

write, discover, 
invent, paint, 

Task 7: 

Newspaper headlines 

Work in small groups. Write these newspaper headlines as full sentences. (Allocate a few 
headlines to each group). Continue the stories to make a complete news bulletin. 

e.g. Oil discovered in city centre - Massive reserves of crude oil were discovered in the city 
centre yesterday when builders started digging the foundations for a new office block. . . 

Mobiles banned in class 

Dolphin seen in the Ganges 

Trapped girl saved 

Titanic to be raised 

Man abducted by aliens 

Dog taught to drive 

Robbers thwarted by police 

Aussies beaten - at last 

Woman hit by comet 

Cure for cancer 

Task 8: 

• Imagine you arrive in your home town after sometime away and you discover that the 
local government has made a lot of changes. Work in small groups and write passive 
sentences to describe these changes. 


A brand new shopping and cinema complex has been built on the site of the old play 
ground. All the old buildings have been demolished and new buildings are built. 

• In groups, discuss some of the changes that should be made to the area you live in, e.g. 
the main road should be made into a pedestrian zone. That old building on the corner 
should be pulled down. 

• In your groups, discuss some changes you think should be made to this school and / or 



Task 1: 

Underline the verbs in the sentences and state if they make complete sense. 

A. Some students like to study in the mornings. 

B. Raghu and Peter play football every afternoon. 

C. Prema goes to the library every day. 

Simple Sentence 

A simple sentence, also called an independent clause, contains a subject 
and a verb, and it expresses a complete thought. The three examples above 
are all simple sentences. 

Task 2: 

Underline the subject once and the verb twice. 

1. Mountain bikes have fifteen to twenty one gears. 

2. A rider uses high gears to keep the bike at speed during level riding. 

3. Flat levels and smooth surfaces are the right terrains for using the middle and high 

4. I ride my bike on middle gear on the roads. 

Task 3: 

Identify the coordinating conjunctions in the following sentences 

a. I tried to speak Hindi, and my friend tried to speak English. 

b. Anand won in the competition, so he went shopping. 

c. He studied well, yet he failed in the examination. 

d. The boy didn't want to miss the morning assembly, and so he ran fast. 

e. Reshma had a test the next day, so she studied all night long. 

Compound Sentence 

A compound sentence contains two independent clauses joined by a 
coordinating conjunction. Some of the coordinating conjunctions are as 
follows: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so. (Helpful hint: Acronym - The first 
letter of each of the coordinators spells FANBOYS.) 
Coordinating conjunctions are always preceded by a comma. 

The above sentences are compound sentences. Each sentence contains two indepen- 
dent clauses, and they are joined by a coordinating conjunction. 


Task 4: 

Underline the subordinating conjunctions in the following sentences. 

a. When he handed in his homework, he forgot to give the teacher the last page. 

b. The teacher returned the homework after she noticed the error. 

c. The students are studying because they have a test tomorrow 

d. When I looked into the mirror, I saw an old man. 

e. I saw an old man when I looked into the mirror. 

f. Until Joshi attended Loyola College he had no focus in life. 

g. Joshi had no focus in life until he attended Loyola College. 

When a complex sentence begins with subordinating conjunctions such as sentences 
(a) and (d), a comma is required at the end of the subordinate clause. When the sentence 
begins with an independent clause no comma is required as in sentences (b), (c), (e) 
and (g). 

Complex Sentence 

A complex sentence has a main clause joined by one or more dependent 
clauses. A complex sentence always has a subordinating conjunction such as 
because, since, after, although and when or a relative pronoun such as that, 
who, which unless, though, as, if, etc. 


Task 5: 

The following sentences are either a simple sentence, a compound sentence or a complex 
sentence . Identify the sentences stating what kind each is. 

1. Jim and his friend Sunil had planned to return to Chennai. 

2. Although he searched everywhere, Pandian could find no trace of his shoes. 

3. Suneeta wrote an original poem, and her mother corrected her spelling. 

Task 6: 

Identify the clause linkers in the following sentences. 

1. I don't understand what you are talking about. 

2. The train had left the station before we arrived. 

3. This is the boy who saved the girl from the river. 

4. You can see how awkward this is for me. 

5. Reveal the truth before you leave the place. 


Task 7: 

Underline the subordinate clauses in the following sentences. 

1 . Come when I call you. 

2. What you say is unbelievable. 

3. Do you think there is any truth in what he says? 

4. If I had known about it I would have told you. 

5. As soon as any major design is announced, architectural critics review its features 
and predict its overall effects. 

Task 8: 

Change the following Complex Sentences into Simple and Compound Sentences. 

1 . If you read newspapers regularly, you can improve your English. 

2. Unless a person practices well, his or her skills won't improve. 

3. After I conquered the smaller slopes, I took on the higher slopes. 

4. Before you travel, you should check the weather. 

Task 9: 

Materials: Slips of paper with a, a noun written on each A paper bag. 


1 . Use a variety of nouns that denote things, people, places, time, periods (months or 
holidays), and so on. Put the slips of paper into the bag and divide the class into two 

2. A student from the first team comes to the front and picks a paper from the bag. The 
student then gives his / her teammate one clue about the noun, using the phrase "I'm 
thinking of a thing (Person / place /animal / etc.) . . ."and an adjective clause to complete 
the clue. Write this starting phrase on the board. 

Sample Sentence: 

/ am thinking of an animal that is yellow with black stripes. 

3. After the first clue has been given, the first person on the clue giver's team to raise 
his / her hand can guess the noun. If the answer is correct, his /her team gets a point. 
If the answer is incorrect, the clue-giver gives another clue, again using an adjective 
clause. This time, anyone on either team may guess, and the team that answers 
correctly gets the point. 

4. Repeat steps 2 and 3 with a student from the other team. Continue alternating between 
teams. The team with the most point at the end wins. 

Task 10: 

Picture sentences 
Materials: Large Pictures. 


1. Find full page ads that can be seen when held up. Let the teacher trainers get into 
pairs, and be given a picture each. 


2. Let each pair write a sentence containing an adjective clause about the picture. 
Example: The man who is next to the president is holding a book. 

3. The pairs hold up their pictures and read their sentences to the class. 

Task 11: 

Guess Who? 

Procedure: Write ten phrases on the black board. 


borrow money 

eat pizza 

play cricket 

eat too much 

go to a movie 

take part in a competition 

go out to eat 

go dancing 

go to the mall 

stay up 

2. Write a sentence using each of the phrases and an adverbial subordinator. The 
sentences may use any logical tense / time. Adverbial subordinates can be listed on 
the board. 


I borrowed money after I lost my cash bag. 

I took part in a competition when I was 14 years old. 

3. Completed individual papers may be collected and unusual sentences can be read 
aloud and the class may be asked to guess who wrote them. 

Variation 1: As a follow-up activity, you can use the students' sentences to create games 
to review adverbial subordinates at the end of the unit. Divide the sentences into two 
columns with the main clause on the left and the dependent clause (write the adverbial 
subordinator) on the right. Cut them apart and mix them up. Divide the class into teams 
and hand out the strips containing clauses to the teams. Have the students make as many 
logical sentences as possible. The team with the most logical sentences wins. 

Task 12: 

Who Am I? 

Materials: Slips of paper, each containing the name of a different student in the class. 


1. Tell the students that you are going to take on the identity of one of them. Choose a 
student and then describe yourself as if you were that student. Use physical and 
personality details and the structure "I am someone who..." or "I am the kind of 
person who..." 


2. Distribute the slips of papers. Each student is to take on the identity of the name on 
his/ her paper and write five sentences to describe himself / herself, using the structure 
indicated above. 

3. Have the class get up, circulate and describe themselves to one another. They must 
try to find themselves in the crowd by listening to other students describe themselves 
in the new identity. (You can circulate and listen for examples and errors.) 

4. The first person to find himself/ herself is the winner, but have everyone find himself 
/herself before you stop the game. 


1 . Do you use Complex Sentences in your every -day life ? 

2. Make five Compound Sentences. 

3. Write five statements about the problems in the schools in Simple Sentences. 


1 . Wendy A. Scott and Lisbeth H. Ytreberg, 'Teaching English to Children' . 

2. Matilda Bailey and Lalla Walker, 'Our English Language Through the Years'. 

3. Penny Ur and Andrew Wright 'Five-Minute Activities' Cambridge. 

4. Suzanne W. Woodward (1997) 'Fun with Grammar' Prentice Hall Regents. 

5. Raymond Murphy with Toann Altman(1989), 'Grammar in Use', Cambridge 
University Press, USA. 

6. Elaine Walker & Steve Esworth (2000) 'Grammar Practice for Elementary Students' , 

7. Tamil Nadu Textbook Corporation (2008), 'English Reader Matriculation' Chennai. 

8. LGAlexander (1990), ' Longman English Grammar Practice', Longman, Great 

9. David Seymour & Maria Popova (2007), '700 Classroom Activities' Ashford Colour 
Press Ltd, UK. 

10. John Haycroft(1975), 'Getting on in English', BBC,London. 

1 1 . Mark Hancock, 'Phrasal Verbs and Idioms Singing Grammar' , Cambridge University 

12. DTERT(2005), 'Functional Grammar and Spoken English.' 





Objectives of Teaching Reading 

To enable the students 
i) to read with fluency 

ii) to read with correct pronunciation 

iii) to read English with accuracy 

iv) to read with understanding 

v) to take pleasure in reading 

vi) to use ideas gained from reading in other situations 
vii) to form a habit of reading 
viii) to read materials in English after school life. 

ix) to widen the 'eye-span' (which means the number of words our eyes see in one fixing.) 


This unit deals with reading - one of the four language skills. There are seven sections 
in this unit. The first section gives you a vivid picture of the importance of reading, reading 
skills and reading process. You can learn about reading readiness and the methods of teaching 
reading in the second and third sections respectively. The fourth and fifth sections focus on 
such interesting areas as picture reading and 
making reading effective through activities and 
games. The sixth section shows how to interpret 
non-verbal tasks and the last section talks about 
some types of reading. 

READING - Meaning, Skills & Process 
Specific Objectives: 

To enable the teacher trainees 
i) to know what reading is 
ii) to focus on the importance of reading 
iii) to practise reading skills 
iv) to familiarize with the reading process. 
v) to differentiate between loud reading and 

silent reading. 

vi) to employ loud and silent reading in appropriate situations. 
Reading consists of three elements - the symbol, the sound and the sense. 


What is reading? 

You read by looking at the print. You can't 
read unless you look at the print and 
recognize the letters and then recognize 
the words. 

Words are pronounced and understood 
when letters are put together. 
Reading is comprehending from print. 
Recognizing every word does not mean 
complete reading. Comprehending is the 
essential aspect of reading. One has to 
understand all the words and thus 
comprehend each sentence in order to 
understand a text. 





Consider what the question 'Can you read this?' might mean in the following situations: 

1 . An old man is undergoing a sight test at an optician's clinic and is asked to read a list of 

2. A child in class 2 is shown a flash card with the word 'here' on it by her teacher. 

3. The owner of a new computer asks an experienced person about the instructions in the 

• In the first situation it refers to identification of symbols. 

• In the second situation it refers to decoding. 

• In the third situation it refers to interpretation. 

Thus reading is a complex activity consisting of a wide range of skills. Converting symbols 
into sounds is a beginning to read. The objective of reading is to convert groups of symbols 
into meaning and this involves not only the mechanical skills, like eye movement, but also 

• attitude to reading, 

• flexibility of approach, 

• ability to identify key points, 

• recognizing the way the material is organized, and 

• vocabulary. 


Dr. West, after an extensive study on Indian pupils, suggested that reading should be given 
the key place in the total scheme of teaching. 

Teaching of reading is important because: 

i) Reading indicates knowledge of the language, 
ii) It gives the learner full control over words and patterns which they come across during 

the process of reading, 
iii) Reading helps in gathering news and acquiring knowledge of current affairs through 

newspapers, journals, books, etc. 
iv) It is a source of recreation. During leisure one can go through books, magazines, 

journals, etc. 
v) Reading enhances experience. 

vi) It facilitates the intellectual development of the child, 
vii) It is a good source of self-education, 
viii) Reading makes a full man. 


Characteristics of a good reader: 

> knows and understands the meanings of words. 

> tells you the main points of what she / he has just read, or summarize a text. 

> grasps how ideas are linked together and organized in a text. 

> predicts what the text is going to say. 

> says whether the text was good or not. 



As you continue to read, make a list of specific skills of reading that are mentioned below. 
How many of these do you think are normally introduced in our classrooms, normally? 
Which ones? 

The specific of reading are: 

a) Extracting main ideas 

Sometimes it is difficult to see what the main ideas of a passage are, or to distinguish 
between important and unimportant information. A good reader should be able to extract 
the main ideas. 

b) Reading for specific information 

It's not always necessary to read the whole passage, especially if you are looking for 
information which is needed to perform a specific task. 

c) Understanding text organization 

Practice is needed in recognizing how sentences are joined together to make paragraphs, 
how paragraphs form the passage and how this organization is signalled. 

d) Predicting 

Before reading a passage, we usually ask ourselves what we know about the subject matter. 

e) Checking comprehension 

On certain occasions, such as in examinations, you need to study the passage very closely 
to find the answer to a question. The information you require is in the passage and all you 
have to do is to find it. 

f) Inferring 

A writer may decide to suggest something indirectly rather than state it directly. The reader 
has to infer this information. 

g) Dealing with unfamiliar words 

Understanding the meaning of unfamiliar words is necessary for comprehension. 

h) Linking ideas 

While reading, readers may identify how different words are related to the same idea. 

i) Understanding complex sentences 

Readers can be given practice in simplifying long and complicated sentences. 

j) Understanding writer's style 

An important part of the pleasure in reading is being able to appreciate the style of the 

k) Writing summaries. 

It is a productive skill and requires accurate comprehension of the passage. 


Now let us read two letters to observe the relevance of some of these skills during the 


L. Dinesh Kumar, 
December 5, 2007. 

Mr. George, 

1234, Anna Nagar, 


Ref : Non-payment of Rs.43,210.00 - Meenakshi Hospital - Account No. 568676 - 

Dear Mr. George, 

Two weeks ago we wrote to you asking you to contact us regarding the above account for the 
settlement of your bill for the amount of Rs. 43, 2 10/ -.Yet till date we have not heard from you. 

As Mrs. George needed urgent medical attention she was treated immediately. We feel that 
you should atleast extend the courtesy of replying to our several requests for payment by making full 
or partial payments, beginning now. Even small payments will be accepted if they are regular ones. 
We expect to hear from you within the next two weeks, please. 

Yours very truly, 

L. Dinesh Kumar, 

Manager, Meenakshi Hospital. 

L. Dinesh Kumar, 
4321, Ashok Nagar, 
Chennai - 26 
December 17, 2007. 
Mr. George, 
1234, Anna Nagar. 

Ref : Non - payment of Rs.43,210.00 - Meenakshi Hospital - Account No. 568676 - 

Dear Mr. George, 

We cannot understand why you continue to ignore the requests for the payment of Rs.43, 210/- 
We feel that you have had ample time to respond to our repeated reminders. 

If we do not hear from you within two weeks, we will have no other alternative than to 
turn this account over to a recovery agency for payment. We trust you do not want to have 
this on your credit record. 

We expect prompt attention to this matter. 

Yours truly, 

L. Dinesh Kumar, 

Manager, Meenakshi Hospital. 

Have you got the main ideas? 

Mark T if the sentence is true and F if it is false with reference to the letters given 


1 . The letter of 5 th December was the first one from Dr. L. Dinesh Kumar's office about 
the money Mr. George owed. 

2. The letter of 5 th December is more polite than the letter of 17 th December. 

3. Dinesh Kumar thinks that Rs.43, 210.00 is a small payment. 

4. The letter of 17 th December contains a threat. 

5. In two weeks Mr. Dinesh Kumar will write to Mr. George another letter. 

Guessing unknown words 

Find words or phrases in the two letters which have roughly the meanings given below. 

1. Be polite, and answer 

2. Pay no attention to 

3. Enough 

4. Other choice 

5. Company that recovers the money from the people who have taken credit. 

Find evidence in the two letters for the following. 

1 . Several people work in the hospital. 

2. Studies have shown that most people prefer to pay large debts in instalments. 

3. If Mr. George telephoned the doctor's office and explained that he was on strike and 
had no money, they would probably be able to understand his situation. 


What actually happens when we read? 

Our eyes do not make a continuous forward sweep. Instead they progress by little 
'jumps', moving, then stopping, as they progress along the line. This kind of jumping 
movement is called a saccadic movement. 

Every time the eye pauses and sees a phrase or even a sentence it jumps to the next 
part of the line and so on. These pauses are called fixations. 

Another interesting fact about eye movement is regression. The reader goes back 
and looks again at something he had read before and continues reading. 

The two important factors to be noted in the reading process is Eye-voice span and 
Eye-memory span. The eye-memory span is the distance the eyes have travelled ahead of 
interpretation and eye-voice span is the distance the eyes have travelled ahead of 

There are several different kinds of faults in reading. 

> Most people read everything at the same slow speed. 

> Some people move their lips. 

> Some people follow the words with their finger or with a pen. 

If you want to read faster the secret is simply to practise under timed conditions. 

Characteristics of a rapid reader: 

> Wider span of recognition 

> Shorter reaction time 


> Fewer regressions 

> Reduction of vocalization (lowering of voice) 

> Better comprehension. 

> Accurate perception (i.e. able to see and understand the words correctly) 

> Concentration. 

> Rich vocabulary 


Reading speed is determined by how many words your eyes can see at a single glance. 
Here is a comparison of three different readers. 

Slow reader 

















j read 


Being able 

to read 

by phrases 

instead of 

by single words 


from practice 


ast reader 

Being able to read by phrases 

instead of by single words 

results from practice 

> Make your students read. 

> Classify them into slow, average and fast readers. 

> Take steps to increase the speed of the slow and average readers. 


Loud reading 

This kind of reading is also known as oral reading. You can introduce it after two 
months of practice in reading words aloud. 



A model reading is given by the teacher, with correct pronunciation, punctuation, 
rhythm, etc. 


Students at the initial levels should read aloud. The teacher should correct their 



• Students develop the skill of speech and communication. 

• Their mistakes can be corrected. 

• They learn by imitation. 

Silent Reading 

It is the most important type of reading. The right time to begin silent reading is when pupils 

i) know the basic structures, 

ii) can perceive and recognize words, 
iii) can pronounce words, and 

iv) can understand the meaning of words. 


Step-1 : The teacher asks the students to read a passage silently. 

Step-2 : To ensure that the students are not whispering or murmuring, the teacher goes 

round checking them. 
Step-3 : After allowing sufficient time for reading, the teacher asks a few questions so as 

to test the understanding of the students. 


i) It is time-saving and quick, 
ii) It saves energy as well. 

iii) It is useful in real life situations, (like in a public library) 
iv) It develops the ability to read with interest, 
v) It initiates self-education and deep study. 


> Distribute the copies of a story book to all your students. 

> Ask them to read silently. 

> After they complete reading, pretend you are one of the characters in the book. 

> Describe yourself and mention one or two things you do in the story. 

> Ask them to guess who you are. 



Specific objectives: 

To enable the teacher trainees 

1 . to familiarize with the concept of reading readiness. 

2. to identify the various readiness skills. 

3. to frame activities to develop the reading readiness of the students. 

What is Reading Readiness? 

• The reader's preparedness to read, 

• Only when children are ready they read effectively. (Thorndike's law of 
learning - viz. Law of readiness) 

• the teachable moment for reading. 

Although readiness to read occurs at all levels, this stage is most commonly associated 
with the young child who is just beginning to learn to read in the nursery and the first standard 
stages. Most reading readiness programmes are instituted in the first standard. However 
the number of weeks devoted to the development of reading readiness varies according to 
the maturity and experience of each group. For the slowest children, this reading readiness 
stage may be extended to several weeks prior to implementing the formal reading 

2.1 Fostering reading readiness 

The first requisite for beginning reading is an interest in reading. Children generally 
come to school wanting to learn to read. This interest in reading is not necessarily self- 
initiating. You must foster it by 

• making available picture books on various topics. 

• asking children to bring books to school and share them with other children. 

• reading stories to children. 

• allowing children draw and read simple charts. 

• displaying short readable messages on the bulletin board. 

• labelling the objects in the rooms. 

2.2 The readiness skills 

Major teaching tasks begin only after obtaining child's interest. The readiness skills 
include the following : 

• Training in concept formation. 

• Training in auditory discrimination. 

• Training in visual discrimination. 

• Knowledge of the alphabet. 

• Training in left-to-right progression and in reading on a line. 

• Skill and know-how in handling a book. 

• Acquisition of sight vocabulary. 


• Ability to associate meanings with printed symbols. 

• Independence in working out the pronunciation of word. 

The Readiness Tree 

A good readiness programme 
is directed towards the 
development of proficiency 
in these areas. The pupil 
must develop proficiency in 
each area in the day to day 
activities in the classroom. 


1. For visual discrimination, present a picture card like the one given below and ask 
your students to circle the picture in the long box on the right that looks like the 
picture in the little box 







■s^^-"-. \ 


2. For visual and auditory discrimination give exercises as follows, 
a) Draw a line under the two letters in a set that are the same 
The first one is done for you. 
Set - 1 ba kt vt 

Set - 2 cb tl ht 

Set - 3 tf rx cc 








b) Encircle the letter that is different from the others in each group: 

Example: 00(g) ssk, mlm, ppb, 
hyh, nmn, ssa, 
bbd, rrz, nny. 

c) Draw an arrow from each word to the letter that is the same as the letter that 
begins the word: 

bat \ p 



hat b 



map t 



net h 



pan m 



top n 



d) Pick out the word pairs that have same letters and letter order. 

yes - yes see - fell rat - bat 
cat - bat saw - saw net - net 
on - on fan - pan in - on 

e) Encircle the word that is different in the set: 

cat - cry - cat boy - bed - bed 

day - yes - yes fly - bee - fly 

3. Pictures also may be used to teach word identification and word recognition skills. 
In the exercise below the student reads the sentences and uses the pictures as clues. 
Then he writes the correct letter in the blank. 

car - her - car 
and - why - and 

• §1 

Eg. The boy and the girl read books. 

1. My __og likes ones. 


2. The ig lives in the arm. 

3. Navin has a agon, a all, and a orn. 



Before teaching reading you can evaluate your students for reading readiness through 
some activities as suggested below. 

a) Look at the first letters in the first row. When you are told to start, read across the line 
as fast as you can. Circle all the letters that are the same as the letter in the first row. 
Stop when you are told to stop. Follow the example given in the first column. 












































































































































































You (The teacher) can try the same activity with the small letters of the alphabet also. 

b) Colour the feathers in the Red Indian Head dress on which there is a word that begins 
with the same letter as the letter in the feather on the right : 

Additional Tips: 

Children enter school at various stages of reading readiness. You must plan an 
instructional programme to develop the required skills after assessing their reading readiness. 
The teacher need not wait for the children to get ready. She can stimulate readiness through 
the use of effective reading readiness activities. 


The following set is a sample often activities which can be used with the children who lack 
readiness skills. 

1 . Cut pictures from magazines for classification. Example: Animals, fruits, vegetables, 

2. Ask children to draw pictures related to their lessons. 

3. Draw a missing part of objects or people in the given two pictures. 

4. Trace patterns of simple objects and cut them out. 

5 . Match cut - out numbers from a large calendar with numbers on a big chart. 

6. Recognize geometric forms, objects, or figures that are alike or different. Have pupils 
draw a line under the object from left to right. 

7. Read a short story to the class. Ask children to retell the story in sequence, each taking 
a sentence. 

8. Show a composite picture to the class. Name the objects in it and tell them a story 
about it. 

9. Ask the children to draw two similar pictures and two different ones. 

10. Ask the children to give directions on how to make an object, e.g.: a paper toy. 


Specific Objectives: 

To enable the teacher trainees 
i) to familiarize themselves with the methods of teaching reading, 
ii) to differentiate between the merits and demerits of all the methods, 
iii) to choose the method suitable for the situation and the level of the students. 

Do we need to teach our students how to read? 

What methods do we adopt in our classroom when we teach reading? 

What happens when a student reads ? 

-y- Identifies letters by their features (lines and curves) example s,o,c,d. 

•$■ Recognizes words 

■$■ Decodes the words (understanding the meaning) and 

-y- Proceeds to sentence, paragraph and text-level processing. 

3.1 Important methods of teaching reading 
The Alphabetic Method: 

It is also called the 'ABC Method or 'Spelling Method' . 


• teaching the students the names of the letters in their alphabetic order. 

• combining two or more letters to form a word. 
Example: h_eis 'he', s_h_e is 'she'. 

• combining words into phrases and sentences. 

• reading passages. 

Thus the procedure is letters — » words — » phrases — » sentences. 



i) It gives the student ample opportunity to see words, 
ii) It enables him to build up the essential visual image. 


i) It is a difficult and lengthy method, 
ii) It is dull and monotonous, 
iii) It does not expand the eye - span. 


Prepare letter cards as given below and ask your students to join the letters. 

3.2 The Phonic Method: 


• Each word is broken up into basic speech sounds. 

• The pupils are taught the different sounds first. 

• They learn the alphabet afterwards. 

• Here the teacher teaches English through the phonetic script. 
Example: Cup -/k// A //p/ 


i) It provides a good knowledge of sounds. 

ii) It is linked with speech training, 
iii) It helps to avoid spelling defects. 

iv) It is a complete method. 

i) It ignores meanings. 

ii) It causes confusion because many words have the same sound but different spellings, 
iii) It delays the development of reading words as a whole. 


Prepare word cards with the same beginning or ending sound. 


Pen - Pin 

Mug - Jug 


> Say the beginning sound. 

> Ask the students to pick a corresponding card. 

> Say the ending sound. 

> Ask the students to pick a corresponding card. 

3.3 The Word Method 


• Here, the unit of teaching is a word. 

• Pictures are also used. 

• The students look at the picture and say whatever they see. 

• This method is also called "look and say" method. 


i) It is a direct method, 
ii) It facilitates oral work, 
iii) It is a natural method, 
iv) It is an easy method 
i) It encourages the habit of reading one word at a time, 
ii) All words cannot be taught by using pictures, 
iii) There are abstract words, full meaning of which cannot be understood through single, 

separate words, 
iv) It ignores spelling. 


• Prepare picture cards with words. 

• Ask the students to join hands and form a circle. 

• Place a picture card face down in front of each student. 

• Place a stick in the centre of the circle. 

• Make the students move along the circle and stop. 

• Then twirl the stick. 

• When the stick comes to a stop, the two students, to whom the opposite end of the stick 
points, must pick up the nearest card and read it. 

• The students who read their words correctly within a certain time score a point. 

3.4 The Phrase Method: 

It lies midway between the word method and the sentence method. 


> The teacher prepares a list of phrases and writes one phrase on the black board. 
He asks students to look at the phrase attentively. 

> The teacher reads the phrase and the pupils repeat it several times. 

> New phrases are compared with the phrases already taught. 



i) It helps in extending the eye-span, 
ii) Phrases can be presented with more interesting material aids. 


i) It has all the limitations of the word method, 
ii) It places emphasis on meaning rather than reading. 


> Prepare a set of phrase cards and picture cards. 

> Divide the class into two groups. 

> Give one group the phrase cards and another group the picture cards. 

> Ask them to match the pictures with the phrases. 

3.5 The Sentence Method: 


• Here, the unit of teaching is a sentence. 

• Students learn words and letters of the alphabet afterwards. 

• It can be used effectively only when the children are already able to speak 
the language. 

• Flash cards are used. 

• The procedure of this method is sentence -^phrases H> words H> letters. 


i) It facilitates speaking, 
ii) It is natural as well as psychological, 
iii) It develops the eye-span, 
iv) It helps in self-learning. 
v) It makes use of visual aids. 
i) The readers find it difficult to read a sentence without the knowledge of words and 

ii) It is a time consuming method. 


> Write on the board : 
It is in the sky. 

It is on the water. 

We paste it on our letters. 

It is in this room. 

> Distribute the flash cards of such words as sun, table, boat and stamp to 4 students. 

> Ask each student to place his card beside the appropriate sentence on the board. 


3.6 The Story Method 


• It is an advanced method over the sentence method. 

• The teacher tells a story in four or five sentences illustrated through pictures. 

• The children first memorise the story and then read it. 


i) It creates interest among children, 
ii) It gives a complete unit of thought. 

i) It fails to develop the habit of reading accurately, 
ii) It puts a heavy load on the memory of the students. 

> Narrate a story along with pictures. 

> Prepare some sentence cards related to the story. 

> Show the sentence cards one by one. 

> Ask the students to say whether the sentence is true or false. 


> You have a set of boxes. 

> You have a set of pictures with words. 

> Arrange the words in alphabetical order and write them down in the appropriate 


ab c 


Th e first one, is don e for you 





















Additional Tips: 

You have seen six methods of teaching reading. Which method will you adopt in your 
classroom to teach reading? Why? 

All the methods described here have merits and demerits and none of them is perfect 
in every aspect. Hence you cannot use just one method or approach. Your approach should 
be 'eclectic', i.e. the judicious combination of all the methods. Depending upon the 
classroom situation and the background of the students you could select the salient features 
of all the methods and use them appropriately to teach reading more effectively. 


Specific Objectives 

To enable the teacher trainees 

1 . to develop interest in picture reading. 

2. to know the possible ways of using pictures in the classroom. 

Picture Reading 

Eliciting many details about a picture through activities and questions is 
called Picture reading. 

Think over 

Is picture reading necessary to develop the reading skill of the students? What are the 
possible activities that you could frame from a picture? 


• provide a great deal of information at a glance. 

• come in handy while presenting stories and paragraphs. 

• attract students' attention. 

• promote self-learning. 

• facilitate easy understanding of the message. 

• encourage students to speak without any inhibition. 

composite pictures, 

pictures of birds, 




story pictures, 

blackboard sketches etc., 

may be used for picture reading. 


How do you use a composite picture in a classroom? 

V@@& t mmg §8?®tF^^\ 

•$■ Show a composite picture to the children. 

-y* Make them observe the picture for 5 to 10 minutes. 

-y* Ask the following questions : 

What is this picture about? 

How many children are there in the picture? 

How many men are there? 

How many women are there? 

Who is selling the vegetables? 

What is the man selling? 

Name the vegetables in the picture. 

Name the fruits in the picture. 
"y* Write down the questions on the black -board. 
■v* Help students to answer the questions. 
■$• Guide and correct them. 



• To check their learning ability, use another picture or advertisement. 

• Ask a number of possible questions. 

• List down the new words from the answers. 

• Ask them to describe persons and events. 

Additional Tips: 

Some more activities based on pictures for children. 

1 . Writing down the names often things that are found in the picture. 

2. Listing the names of ten related things that are not found in the picture. 

3. Writing sentences about the picture. 

4. Looking at pictures and identifying similarities and differences. 

5. One student describing an item in the picture and others identifying it. 

6. Observing the pictures with sentences and saying whether the given sentences are 
correct or not. 

7. Looking at the picture and writing related words. Example: Picture of a Student- 
teacher, School, Books, Headmaster, etc. 

8. Using a series of pictures and writing a story. 

Activities for the teacher trainees: 

1 . Draw a picture and ask another trainee to state a sentence about it. 

2. Take up a picture, write several sentences related and unrelated to the picture. 

3. Look at the story pictures and sequence the events depicted in the picture. 

4. Take a composite picture and list the questions you can ask. Others can also answer 
your questions. 

5 . Select a picture showing a situation and describe the events that would have happened 
before and predict what might happen afterwards. 

Specific Objectives 

To enable the teacher trainees 

1 . to orient with the ways and means of making reading effective. 

2. to be acquainted with a sample of activities and language games to implement 
in the classroom. 

To make reading effective the following suggestions may be given due consideration 

i) Start with words familiar to the children. 

ii) Start teaching reading when the child can learn his own mother-tongue, 
iii) Start teaching reading with blackboard and flash cards. 
iv) Give emphasis to recognizing and understanding the meaning of a word simultaneously. 

v) Use simple structures, 
vi) Create a proper atmosphere for reading, 
vii) Make use of the library for your reference. 


viii) Check all the unwanted gestures in reading, 
ix) Always keep in mind the various problems of reading a foreign language. 

Activities and Language Games: 

You can make your teaching of reading more effective if you implement activities and 
if you try language games in the classroom. Activities and language games enhance students' 
participation. There are many activities and games which the teacher can use to foster 
interest in reading. A few samples of such activities and games are given below. The main 
focus of these activities and games is to develop the reading skill. 

Activity- 1 

Prepare a list of words. 
Collect advertisements. 
Read the words from the list. 

Ask the students to circle the words in the advertisement. 

Prepare a list of names of boys, girls, fruits, flowers, etc. 

Ask the students to read the list and write the words in the relevant column. 












Prepare a set of pictures and suitable descriptions. 
Ask the students to match the pictures with description. 






. has a round body and a round head. 
. has a square body and a round head. 
. has a square body and a square head. 

Activity - 4 

• Draw your visual prompts on the board. 

• Write the phrases on the board alongside the visual prompts. 

• Write a number alongside each phrase. 

• Say one of the phrases and ask the children to write down its number. 

• Repeat the activity until they all recognise the phrases confidently. 


• At some stage, remove the visual clues so that the children are identifying the written 
words alone 















It's sunny 
It's raining 
It's snowing 
It's foggy 
It's cloudy 
It's windy 


Prepare two sets of word cards. Supply the cards to two groups. 

Ask them to frame sentences from the word cards. 

Check which group completes the task first and the number of sentences framed. 







Language Games 

• Divide the class into 4 or 5 teams. Prepare picture cards and hide them in the room. Give 
a sentence card to all. 

Ask them to find the suitable picture. The first team to complete the task is the winner. 

• Prepare flash cards as given below. Ask your students to add and subtract letters to find 
out the word. 

e.g.: j+pig-p +sat-t+w = jigsaw. 

• Give a number to each student, Stand near the blackboard. Write a brief instruction for a 
student to do. Write a given number beside the instruction. 

e.g.: Get, up, bring a stone - 10. 

The instruction means that the student No. 10 must get up and bring a stone from outside. 

Continue the game till every student gets a chance. 

• Prepare a worksheet like the one given below. Ask the students to choose a line of words 
(horizontal, vertical or diagonal) from the grid that is in the same lexical group and draw 
a line through the words, 








pencil^ sock trousers 

Answer: pencil - pen - ruler. 
Three in a line 








computer game 











compact disc 
















bus stop 





























































dining room 





Sentence Lotto : 

Students are given sentence cards. Each one is different, but there are some words in 
italics. The teacher has word-strips and reads out or shows the words one at a time. If the 
words read out by the teacher are in the cards the students raise their arms. The first team 
to have all its sentences covered by word strips is the winner. 


Specific objectives: 

To enable the teacher trainees 

1 . to grasp the meaning of non- 
verbal texts. 

2. to interpret the non-verbal texts. 

3. to bring out the importance of 
non-verbal texts. 

Non-verbal texts: 

• Graphs, maps, diagrams, tables and charts are 
non-verbal in nature and they may well form 
a substantial part of the text you are studying. 

• The use of such illustrations can make a 
significant contribution to the reader's 

1. Graphs: 

The graphs are obviously very 

familiar and are easy to interpret. 

They express comparable features like number /quantities on the basis of which qualities/ 

realities are compared. 


a) The line graphs: 

Line graphs illustrate trends, relationships, companions. They are effective when you are 
trying to illustrate time-frequency distributions. Line graphs are often drawn on graph paper 
to assure that certain points are very clear. 


The following line graph shows the marks secured by the students of Standard V in 
English. Study the graph and answer the following questions. 

Graph showing the mark secured by the students of Std V in English 



Ramu Rajesh Suba 

Siva Kala Meena John 

Name of Students 

Vijay Vijila 

Questions : 

• Who has secured the highest mark in English? 

• Who has secured the lowest mark in English? 

• How many students have secured marks below 50%? 

• How many students have secured marks above 50%? 

b) Bar Graphs 

Bar graphs show numbered items with long bars or band of colour. 
The bar graphs may be arranged either horizontally or vertically. 

Horizontal Bar Graph: 

Horizontal bar graphs are usually used to compare components at a particular time. The 
following graph provides data related to competitions conducted in the schools of a district 
in Tamilnadu in connection with the School Adolescent Education Programme. 


Participation in School Adolescent Education Programme 



a- Essay 

™ Drawing 













Name of the Competitions 

Task: Identify the following: 
i) Total number of students who participated in the School Adolescent Education 

ii) The competition in which the most number of students participated, 
iii) The competition in which the least number of students participated. 
iv) Number of students who participated in the quiz competition. 

Vertical Bar Graph: 110 

Vertical bar graphs are used when making comparison of performances or situations at 
different times. Gender balance in the admission of students in a school from 1996 to 2000 
is shown in the graph below. 

Gender Balance in the Admission of Students (1996-2000) 


Q Women 




1. Identify the total population of boys in the years 1996,1997, and 1998. 

2. Identify the total population of girls in the years 1999 and 2000. 

c) Circle or Pie graph 

In this type of graph, a circle is divided into segments which show how the total is broken 
down. It is mainly used to illustrate proportions. 

General opinion about a text book is depicted in the circle graph below: 

General Opinion about a Textbook 

Very Good 

Need Change 



Prepare a budget estimate for your family and present it through a pie graph. 

d) Pictorial Graph or Pictogram 

The pictorial graph uses pictures to show relationship between realities. This kind of 
graph is easier to grasp and often used in textbooks and articles because of its visual impact. 
The increase in the strength of a primary school in Tamilnadu is shown in the pictorial graph 




*U*£*U i 


•- •- #- •- *- 

^l\ ^±Y ^l\ ^l\ ^l\ ^ 


• •#»•* 



= 50 


Task: Choose the correct answer 

1. This pictogram is 

> A presentation of world population. 

> A study of human beings. 

> A growth in the strength of a school. 

> A representation of population growth. 

2. The value of a single lotus is 

> 10 

> 100 

> 1000 

> 10000 

3. The strength between years 2002 and 2005 has grown by . 

> 600 

> 550 

> 700 

> 800 

2a. Charts and tables 

The title of the chart or table tells us the kind of information on the chart or table. 

This is the chart made by the boys and girls to show what kinds of pets they have. 
Look at the chart. Use the chart to answer the questions. Write the answers on your paper. 
Use complete sentences. 

Children owning pets 

















• Now divide the class into groups consisting of more than 5 children. 

• Ask them to prepare a pet chart with the details of their own group members. 

• Let one group ask questions for the other group to answer. 


1 . Who has a pet turtle? 

2. How many children have birds as pets? 

3. Who has the same pet as Lalitha? 


2b. Flow chart: 

Flow charts clarify complex relationships or a sequence of events. 




2c. Algorithm: 

Below is an example of a special kind of chart used for describing complicated 
processes. It shows you how to make a telephone call in a local phone booth. 


Lift receiver and listen. Can you 
hear continuous dialing tone? 


Dial first letter of the number you 



Dial rest of number and wait for a 
few seconds. Can you hear the 
ringing (Burr-burr) tone? 



Something has gone wrong. 
Replace receiver and check 
number. Re-dial, or dial 100 and 
ask operator for help. 



Are you getting a series of 
slow pips? 



Are you getting a 

continuous tone, or no 

sound at all ? 




The person you are calling should now 
hear his phone ringing. When he picks 
up his receiver, your ringing tone will 
change to a rapid series of pips. Has this 
happened yet? 

This is the 'engaged' tone. 
Try again later. 


Something has gone 
wrong. Replace receiver 
and check number. Re- 
dial, or dial, 100 and ask 
operator for help. 


Your number is answering press coin into 
box, wait for pips to stop and speak. 

Your number has not yet answered. 
Continue to wait, or replace receiver 
and trv aaain later. 



Prepare a set of instructions to find a particular book in the library. See if you can 
present the same information in the form of an algorithm. 


The following table shows us the time spent by women on household activities in 
different parts of India. 

Time spent by women on household work 

Fetching water 

Eastern up 
Western up 

Hours per day 

1 to 4 hours 
45minto 3 hours 
1 to 2 hours 

Gathering fuelwood 

Himalayan region 

4 to 7 hours 
30 min to 1 hour 

Grazing animals 

Western up 

3 hours 

30 min to 1 hour 

Fetching water and gathering fuel- wood 

Gujarat-Rajasthan border 

6 to 9 hours 

Look at the table and complete the following statements. 

a) The women of eastern UP spend 1-4 hours a day fetching water, and the women of 

b) The women of the Himalayan region spend up to hours for 

c) On the Gujarat-Rajasthan border, the women spend most of their time on 

Write three more statements of this kind using the information in the table. 

Additional tips: 

Four tips to remember before planning a presentation or before teaching your students 
about the non - verbal tasks: 

• Make sure your headlines are clear and comprehensive. 

• Label every element of a chart or graph clearly. 

• Don't overload your presentations with charts and graphs. 

• Plan to explain everything clearly - 

What the chart shows 

What each of the elements is 

What any abbreviation or symbol stands for 

What relationships are represented 



Specific Objectives 

To enable the teacher trainees 

1 . to acquaint with the study skills- skimming and scanning. 

2. to know about the reading technique SQ3R and to use it in their reading. 

3. to make their students use skimming, scanning and SQ3R in their reading. 


Skimming is one of the main reading styles. It is a method of quick collection of 
information from the printed page. 

When you are skimming.... 

• make the fullest possible use of the headings and sub-headings provided 

• be particularly aware of key or topic sentences in the paragraph. 

We often use skimming to decide whether or not a library book is going to be a 
useful one. 

The usefulness of mastering skimming: 

i) To decide whether the book or the sections is worth reading more thoroughly, to 

locate the most relevant information, 
ii) To decide the purpose and way of reading. 

iii) To improve the effectiveness and speed of reading of the same text, 
iv) To review or revise quickly a text read some time ago. 
v) To give an overview of the information. 
vi) To decide when this text needs to be examined more thoroughly; to devise an order of 

priority in your reading. 

Skimming is not simply turning over the pages as quickly as possible. It is searching the 
text to find what the writer has to say. You should therefore apply this technique to your 
studies and your more general day-to-day reading. 


A style of reading adopted when looking for specific information. For example: 

• reading a section of text for a date. 

• locating a telephone number from a directory. 

• looking up a word in a dictionary. 

Suppose you search a crowd of faces on a busy railway station as you await the arrival 
of a friend, your eyes scarcely pause as they move from one face to another until you locate 
the person you are looking for. In the same way it is possible to search the text for a 
specific piece of information. 

While scanning you 

-> have a mental picture of what you are looking for. 

-> glance swiftly down the page. 


-> are alert for key words which will act as signals. 

-> locate the information you want. 

-> verify the information. 

By scanning with key words in mind, you will also be able to scan magazines, periodicals 
and even your daily newspaper for up-to-date information which you can add to your general 
course notes. 


To have a structured way of monitoring your 
comprehension, and to increase your retention 
try SQ3R 

SQ3R stands for 
S - Survey 
Q - Question 
R - Read 
R - Recite 
R - Review 

SQ3R - The Procedure to follow: 

1. Survey the first one or two paragraphs, the sub-headings, and the last one or two 

2. Change each sub-heading into a question before reading a section. 

3. Read the section to answer the question. 

4. Recite to yourself the answer to the question. 

5. Review the entire section by repeating steps 2 and 4 (question and recite) for each 

The proven success of the SQ3R method is based on the fact that the reader becomes 
actively involved with the text and does not passively accept the writer's point of view. All 
texts cannot be approached in the same way, and it is the function of the mature reader to be 
able to adopt the most appropriate style of learning for the situation being faced at the time. 


1 . Which of the texts below do you normally read in the same way as you read a) a novel? 
b) a timetable? 

Fill in the chart: 

Magazine article, encyclopaedia entry, research article, guide book, manual, newspaper 
article, letter from a friend, brochure, biography, SMS message, TV scroll message. 

Things we read like a novel 

Things we read like a timetable. 

2. You can become a better reader by ignoring irrelevant information. Look at the 
advertisement and answer the question. 




^lotor repairs at competitive prices 

Clutch- Silencer- Brake pads- Welding 
Tyre alignment- Puncture-Timing belts 

Free oil change with most services 
FREE PHONE 04662-259355 

How much does it cost to change oil at the service centre? 



You have five minutes to provide a written outline of a book. How would you 


In each line of the words given below, one word is printed on the left hand side of the 
vertical dividing line, and the same word is repeated on the right hand side. Your task is to 
scan for the repeated word and underline it. You have 25 seconds to finish the exercise. 








































































Formulate questions which you might be expected to answer on the basis of any reading 
material from the library. 

i) A map showing world population densities, 
ii) An article on the cost - effectiveness of heart transplants. 

Additional tips 

• While skimming, you may find it useful to look for words and phrases which act as signposts 
to the main ideas. Linkers such as m oreover , in addition , also, furthermore suggest that 
a central idea previously stated is being reinforced by another significant point; on the 


other hand , however, nevertheless, despite the fact will precede a vital point and suggest 
a turning point in the argument; thus , therefore , in conclusion , consequently , this being 
so suggest that the author is moving towards a concluding point. 

• While following SQ3R, general questions which may be of some help to you in formulating 
your own specific questions could be: 

> Where does it relate? 

> How does it relate? 

> Do I know it? 

> Do I need to know it? 

> Do I agree with it? 

> What are the issues raised? 

> What might an examiner ask? 

< "i 


♦ Reading is one of the skills of learning a language. 

♦ Reading is generally defined as a process that helps us to 
i. decode, decipher and identify the words in print. 

ii. articulate and pronounce the words in print. 

iii. understand, interpret and sense the meaning of the words/ texts in print. 

♦ Reading should be given the key place in teaching. 

♦ A good reader will have all the reading skills. 

♦ Saccadic movement, fixation, regression, eye- voice span and eye-memory span are 
the important aspects of reading process. 

♦ The two main types of reading are loud reading and silent reading. 

♦ Loud reading is also known as oral reading. 

♦ Silent reading is known as the adult way of reading. 

♦ Reading readiness is the teachable moment for reading. 

♦ An important part of the readiness programme is the development of good listening 

♦ The alphabetic method is also known as spelling method. 

♦ The word method is also known as look and say method. 

♦ In the sentence method the unit of teaching is a sentence. 

♦ The phonic method gives importance to pronunciation. 

♦ Picture reading creates an interest among the students and a lot of activities can be 
framed using pictures. 

♦ Reading can be made effective through activities and games. 

♦ The non-verbal texts such as graphs, maps, diagrams, tables and flow-charts help to 
clarify complex concepts. 

♦ Skimming and scanning are the two important techniques of fast reading. 

♦ SQ3R technique is used to improve the effectiveness of reading for learning. 

i, > 



Read through the following comments and note down their specific reading difficulties. 


Sheela is a reader of fiction. As a result, she reads quickly but finds it difficult to read 
academic books. She skips over diagrams, tables and any part of the book where the 
vocabulary is difficult, tending to concentrate on background reading of the subjects she 


Ravi reads very slowly, partly because of having read very little when he was younger. 
He prefers watching television to reading as a form of relaxation and his general vocabulary 
is limited. 


Hari's main problem is boredom. He soon loses his concentration and finds that he is 
simply turning over the pages and little is being taken in. He avoids reading if possible, and 
when he must read, he does so quickly and often superficially. 

Suggest your remedy to overcome their reading difficulties. 

-Y- Think of readability and reading ability. What is the difference and what is the 

-Y- A good reader should have a good eye span, why? Observe two readers of different 

speeds. How can the eye- span be increased in the slow readers? 
-Y- Compare the reading of local language with that of English. 
-y- Familiarity with words versus Eye-span. 
-y- Test it with your students and find out the relationship. 
-Y- Non-verbal items are mostly visuals. They are to be integrated into verbal. Give real life 

-y- You are reading a report of a social event. List down the items you will be curious in 

noting down while skimming the report. 
-y- As teachers of English, we all want to be good readers. Look at the statements below 

and identify the good reader. 

a. I read all types of material for pleasure and profit. 

b. I read aloud. 

c. I concentrate on every syllable or word in the sentence to arrive at the complete 
meaning of the text. 

d. I try to predict what follows based on prior knowledge gained from other sources. 

e. I guess at word meanings on the basis of the contextual clues found in most texts. 

f. I read silently without even whispering the words or moving the lips. 

g. I do not concentrate on every word but instead focus on the important meaning. 

Congratulations to those of you who chose a,d,e,f and g. These are the characteristics of a 
good reader. 



1. N.P.Pahuja, (2001), 'Teaching of English', New Delhi: Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. 

2. Choudhury Roy Namita, (1998), 'Teaching English in Indian Schools', New Delhi: 
A.PH. Publication. 

3. A.K. Paliwal, (1998), 'English Language Teaching', Jaipur: Surabhi publications. 

4. May Frank B., (1991), 'Reading as communication', Columbus: Merill Publishing 

5. Wallace Michael J, (1980), 'Study Skills in English', Australia: Cambrige University 

6. P.N. Raman., (1989), 'Grammar and Writing Practice', Madras: Orient Longman. 

7. Dechant Emerald V., (1969), 'Improving the teaching of Reading', New Delhi: 
Prentice-Hall of India Private Ltd. 

8. Walter Catherine, (1982), 'Authentic Reading', Australia: Cambridge University Press. 

9. Harmer Jeremy, (2006), 'How to Teach English', New Delhi: Pearson Longman. 

10. Robertson Steve and Smith David, (1987), 'Effective Studying' , Beirut: Longman 
York Press. 

11. Raines Claire and Williamson Linda, (2004), 'Using Visual Aids', New Delhi: Crisp 

12. Ackland Jenny, 'Pre reading activity book', London: Oxford. 

13. Wallace Catherine, (1992), 'Reading', Hong Kong: Oxford University Press. 

14. Gordon, (1977), 'Rapid Reading', New Delhi: Rupa paper back. 

1 5 . Sharma Kadambari, Tutej a Tripat, 'Teaching of English '. 

16. Krishnakumar, 'The Child's Language and the Teacher' 

17. CJEFEL, 'What is reading' - Hyderabad. 

18. Halliwell Susan, 'Teaching English in the Primary Classroom, ' 

19. 'English Reading Skills' (2005) - DTERT, Chennai. 

20. 'Developing Written Communication Skill' (2005-2006) - DTERT, Chennai. 

21 . Tnservice Training for the Teachers' (2002 -2003) - DTERT, Chennai. 

22. Annual Refresher course ' (2006-2007) - DTERT, Chennai. 



A. Scope 

Writing is the most creative language skill. With speaking it is identified as the 
productive skill. While listening and reading are the related receptive skills, handwriting 
reflects the writer's personality, his written material testifies this mature skill in part of 
teaching language. Primary education is the most important stage of developing the child. 
Hence this chapter deals with mechanics, physical concepts, forms and various approaches 
and techniques of teaching writing. 

B. Development 

The teaching of handwriting may seem a relic of the past in the computer age, but learning 
a consistent system of printing and cursive writing is as essential as it ever was, especially 
for young writers, say handwriting experts. The lack of an automatic command of handwriting 
can inhibit a student's ability to write, affect his self-confidence, and encourage him to 
avoid writing. 


At the beginning level the focus is on learning the alphabet, the left-to-right direction 
of English writing, cursive writing, upper and lower case letters, alphabetizing, basic spelling 
patterns of English, rules for capitalization, and word and sentence punctuation. The basic 
skills include writing letters, numbers, words, phrases, and sentences correctly. 

All these should be accomplished by providing writing exercises which use words 
(and phrases and sentences). Students may begin with copying what is given to them, but 
soon they should begin to write from memory, be these items words, phrases, or sentences. 
In such "free writing" they may be given non-linguistic visual prop in the form of pictures 
of objects or objects themselves. They will see the pictures or objects, recollect from their 
memory the words for such pictures or objects, and write these words. Hence, right from 
the beginning some form of free writing is encouraged, even as they go on mastering the 
mechanics of writing. 

Check list for writing 

•$■ Motor skills are needed for producing legible printing. 

■$■ Left-to-right orientation 

-y- The ability to produce shapes which are the building blocks of English letters 

-♦■ Knowing and writing the alphabet 

•$■ Naming while copying and then spelling out loud the words copied 

■$■ Recognition and production from written form: Vowels, consonants and 
blends. Words and syllables, upper and lower case letters, basic spelling patterns, 
common sight words, rhyming words, punctuation, phrases and sentences 

"v* Motor skills needed for producing legible cursive writing. 



Copying words and sentences is an important lower level writing activity. The alphabet 
is mastered using copying. Proper hand movements in writing letters and words are 
established using copying. Also the fluency in writing is improved through appropriate 
copying exercises. Copying helps also recognizing and using punctuation marks. Young 
students begin with copying, and copying becomes a game, a play for them. 

Use words for a writing practice from the student's immediate environment, and later 
on from speaking and reading activities. After learning to say and read words, and then to 
copy them, the student may perform other writing tasks, such as filling in missing letters 
and missing words. As children see adults writing, they naturally want to write. They want 
the crayons and the pencil because there's nothing as personal as a child's own writing and 
drawings. Children who master the mechanics of handwriting are happy to write, are more 
expressive, and they do a better job in content. 

Because the teaching of handwriting has been neglected for more than two decades, 
more and more children are having trouble with written expression and don't enjoy it. Children 
who are not taught how to form letters and given a chance to practise, end up making letters 
inefficiently, drawing each in an idiosyncratic way, as they don't think about where to start 
the letter and how they will do it. They cannot help being messy, and they can't gain speed in 
writing. They lack automaticity. 

Instruction for good handwriting needs to be given in three parts to make it a "body habit." 

• First, the teacher should demonstrate the formation of the letter, so that a child sees the 
movement of the teacher's hand and arm making the pen or pencil strokes. 

• Second, the child should imitate the same motions and then copy a model of the letter. 
Olsen, a hand writing expert, cautions that students shouldn't be made to copy endlessly, 
a practice that usually produces sloppy results because students end up "copying their 
copies." Instead they should copy a letter four or five times, but use a perfect model each 

• Third, and finally, after a period of practising, a student should be able to write the letter 
when the teacher asks because he now has an abstract notion of the letter in mind that his 
hand can produce automatically. 

Pre-requisite Skills 

Before students are instructed in correct letter formation, they should have developed 
skills that are pre-requisites for handwriting. These skills include: 

• ability to cross the midline 

• ability to use two hands 

• understanding of directional terms 

• ability to recognize similarities and differences in forms 

• hand dominance 

• functional pencil grasp 

• ability to copy lines and shapes 


The following section offers specific strategies for incorporating pre-requisite 
handwriting skills into the early childhood classroom. 

Ability to Cross the Midline 

Children process language in the frontal lobe of the brain's left hemisphere. They 
process verbal information into receptive and expressive vocabulary. The left brain is the 
area where information is organized, sequenced and analyzed. Combining these skills with 
the creativity of the brain's right hemisphere creates a balanced approach to developing 
essential skills for communication, reading and writing. 

To facilitate development of crossing the midline, students should participate in the 
following activities: 

Tying Shoes: 

In order to tie one's shoes, a student must be able to cross the midline and use both 
hands to complete this task. 

Exercises to develop pre-requisites for handwriting: 

> Windshield Wipers: Arms above head, cross straight arms ten times like scissors then 
put bottom arm over top hand and do ten more. 

> Scissor Cuts: Same as windshield wipers only arms are pointed straight down with 
palm up. 

> Daily experiences: Students zipper their coat, button their pants or tie their shoes. 

> Balancing: Students build with blocks and use both hands to balance heir structure. 

Ability to Use Two Hands: 

As students begin to gain strength and progress with their hand development, they 
also begin to naturally use both their hands to complete a task and gain bilateral hand skills. 
This is the ability to use one's hands together to accomplish a task. One hand leads and the 
other assists. The development of hand dominance determines which hand is preferred and 
which hand assists with a task. Examples of this prerequisite skill include: 

1 ) holding a piece of paper with the non-dominant hand and using the dominant hand to 
write with a pencil or 

2) holding a piece of paper with the non-dominant hand and using the dominant hand to 
cut with a pair of scissors. 

To ensure that students acquire the ability to use two hands, the teacher should 
incorporate the following activities into the classroom: 

-y- Tearing paper: Students will create art projects by tearing paper into small pieces instead 
of using scissors. 

-y- Cutting with scissors: Students cut paper with scissors, starting with basic lines and 
then moving to more complex shapes. 

-$■ Tracing letters: Students will use stencils to trace objects, shapes and/or letters. 


■$■ Making letters: Students will make letters using yarn, shoe strings or wax-coated 

-Y- Stapling paper: Students will staple papers together while making books or packets to 
encourage the use of both hands. 

"v* Punching holes: Students will use single-hole punchers to make designs on paper. 

-y- Wringing out sponges: Students will wring out sponges to increase muscle development. 

-y- Stringing beads : Students will make pattern necklaces by stringing colored beads onto 
a string. 

-y- Performing linger plays: Students will sing songs that require the use of both hands 
such as "Where is Thumb kin?" 

"v* Clapping: Students will use both hands to clap syllables in words or to clap to the beat 
of a song.( Clap your hands) 

-Y- Constructing with blocks: Using blocks or ice-cream sticks, students will use both 
hands to create a building. 

Handwriting exercises 

"v* Finger Opposition: Hold fingers next to ears and have the students touch their thumb 
to each finger and back again. Complete 10 to 15 sets. 

-y- Butterflies: Hold arms straight in front of your body and make an X with thumbs, palms 
facing down to resemble a butterfly. Make small circles 10 times to the right and then 
10 times to the left. 

Recognizing similarities and differences in form 

-y- Drawing: As students draw pictures, teachers ask questions that focus attention to 
similarities/ differences (Ex. - "How do you know those are both people?" "Why is this 
shape your dad and this shape your mom?" "What makes the dog different?") 

Understanding directional terms 

-y- Read Aloud: Teachers point to text as they read aloud to students, modelling left-to- 
right progression so students understand and visualize left- to-right directionality. 

-y~ Labelling the Room : Encourage students to label objects in their classroom and 
compare classroom objects for similarities/differences. 

-y- Puzzles: Students build puzzles according to the shapes that look similar to other puzzle 
pieces. They sort through each puzzle piece to find the shape that they need, to make the 
pieces fit together. 

-y- Sorting: Students discriminate among objects according to size, shape, color, etc. 

*v* Straight Line/ Curved Line Exploration: Students manipulate commercially-made 
wooden, plastic or foam pieces, cut into big and small lines and curves, to form letters. 


Hand Dominance 

Hand dominance is the natural tendency for human beings to favour one hand over 
the other. It requires coordination of the small muscles in the hand to properly control a 
writing tool. The dominant hand develops skills and precision to perform fine motor tasks 
while the non-dominant hand supports and assists with the task. 

Natural-handedness should be determined before students begin to write. In order to 
develop hand dominance, teachers need to provide students with opportunities to explore 
hand preference. 

-y- Sequencing: The teacher will direct the students to use only one hand when sequencing 

-y- Cutting with scissors: Students cut out pictures from newspapers or magazines that 
have a black marker line drawn around the picture to provide a guide for cutting. 

-y- Drawing with stencils, templates, or a ruler: Students use their dominant hand to 
write and their non-dominant hand to hold the object being drawn or traced. 

-y- Using a pencil sharpener: Teachers can observe the students' hand dominance by 
observing which hand the student uses to turn the crank. 

-y- Opening containers with lids: Students demonstrate hand preference by holding the 
container with one hand and using their dominant hand to remove the lid. 

-y- Using wind up toys: Students use their dominant hand to wind up the toys as they play 
with them. 

-y- Wearing a bracelet or ring as a reminder: Place a visual clue on a student's hand so 
he/she can remember with which hand to write. 

Left-handed Students 

The development of hand dominance is essential for a child's development. Ten percent 
of the population is now left-handed. Left-hand dominant students may pose a special 
challenge to teachers during handwriting instruction. However, as instruction begins, it is 
recommended that teachers group left-handers together for handwriting instruction or, if 
possible, provide left-handed students with left-handed adults to model the correct pencil 
grasp and formation of letters. 

When writing on a flat, horizontal surface, left-handed students should tilt the paper 
so that the upper left corner is higher and the non-dominant hand is holding the paper 
steady. This assists the left- handed writers in keeping their wrist straight and inhibits writing 
in the hooked position. 

Finger-writing isn't fatal, but it is slow and often painful (if you have to write much). 
The first thing you must have (beg, buy, borrow or steal it) is patience and gentleness with 
yourself. The second requirement is determination. If you finger- write, that is the first, 
most important thing you must un- learn: Do not draw your letters ! Do not write with your 
fingers ! 


. . . let's look at the most basic things: holding the pen and positioning the hand. 

Fig. 1 : Holding the pen in between the 1 st and 3rd finger Fig. 2: Common Pen holding position 

Fig. 2. This is the most common pen-holding position, with pen between first and 
middle fingers, held in place by the thumb.Most of us hold the pen between the thumb and 
index finger, resting the barrel on the middle finger. 

Fig. 3: The two-fingers-on-top method for holding the pen while writing 

Note that this position, usually used for calligraphy (or among really disciplined 
writers), causes the pen to rest atop the knuckle of the forefinger. For handwriting, the pen 
position is less important than for calligraphy. What's essential is that you be comfortable, 
the pen feel balanced and you have no tension in your hand. Rest the heel of your hand and 
the angle of your curled-up little finger on the paper. Hold the pen lightly; don't squeeze it. 
Sit up straight, but not stiffly; don't sit hunched over or slumped. Don't worry too much 
about this position stuff; the important thing is what makes you feel relaxed and comfortable. 
Your writing arm needs to be free to move. Hold your fingers fairly straight and write slightly 
above and just between your thumb and index finger, right 
where you're holding the pen. 

The ribbon around this hand is actually a penmanship tool, 
intended to train muscles to the proper position and range of 
motion. As the person wrote, the ribbons would tug when he/ 
she reached the outer limits of "proper" and literally rein the 
hand in. 


Having a Functional Pencil Grasp 

Before being able to hold and control a writing tool, students must be able to coordinate 
movement and have control over the small muscles of the hand. Small muscle coordination 
activities should be a part of handwriting instruction. For struggling students, the following 
activities may be helpful: 

Using manipulatives: 

Jigsaw puzzles 
Snap beads 

Molding with: 


Practising art skills: 




Tearing paper 

Folding paper 

Cutting paper with scissors 

Once students have developed small muscle coordination, introduce a variety of "hand tools" 
requiring a variety of grasps. These tools can be incorporated into a sand or water table. 
Include items such as: 




Squeeze bottles 



Playing with small toys: 


Miniature gas stations 


Doll furniture 

Using "daily experience activities": 




Screwing lids on small jars 

Screwing nuts and bolts 



• Tying knots and bows 

• Playing a piano 

Once students are ready to move on to using writing tools, they can begin using markers or 
sketches. These two tools are easy to use because students do not need to apply pressure to 
get results. All too often, crayons are introduced and used as beginning writing tools. 
However, students are required to use more pressure when writing with a crayon than with 
markers or Sketches to get colorful results. After students have had practice using markers, 
pens and crayons in a variety of activities, they should be introduced to using pencils. Pencils 
are often used in Primary classrooms. 

Pencil grasp refers to how a student holds a writing implement. It is important that 
students learn how to hold a writing tool correctly from an early age. Incorrect grasps are 
very hard to change. As a student's hand muscles become stronger, he/she should naturally 
develop an increasingly more effective pencil grasp. The development of an effective and 
correct pencil grasp will improve a student's ability to learn to write. Initially, students 
will hold a writing tool with a closed fist. This is commonly referred to as a power grasp. 
When using a power grasp, students move their writing tool by moving their shoulder. 
This is considered to be an inefficient grasp because: 

> Students use a lot of energy to perform this grasp which causes their hand and arm to 
become fatigued 

> This particular grasp prevents students from forming symbols/letters that require small, 
precise movements 

By the age of four, most students will have progressed through a number of different grasps. 
As their hand muscles get stronger, students begin to place their fingers in different ways 
on the pencil until they develop a more effective pencil grasp. The most efficient grasp is 
called the tripod grasp. 

This grasp consists of the following steps: 

> A student holds the pencil with three fingers - the middle, the thumb and the index 

> The pencil is resting on the knuckle of the middle finger while being pinched between 
your thumb and index finger. 

> The ring and "pinky" finger are bent and rest on the table. 

This is considered to be an efficient grasp because: 

> It requires less energy to perform, which causes a student's hand to become less fatigued. 

> It allows for the greatest amount of movement and precision, which makes it easier for 
students to form symbols/letters that require small precise movements. 

If students have difficulty using a correct pencil grasp, encourage practice using the 
following writing tools: 

> Small/broken pieces of crayons and chalk 

> Primary crayons 

> Primary-sized markers 


Adaptive pencil grips 

Adaptive grips are used to position fingers correctly on the pencil. It is very important 
that students only use these grips for a short period of time each day. These short time 
periods will give students a chance to get used to the feeling of a new grasp without making 
them feel discouraged. 

The ability to copy Lines and Shapes/Basic Strokes 

Once a student begins to develop eye-hand coordination and pencil grasp, they will 
begin to use these skills to scribble. Eventually, a student's scribbling includes the use of 
basic strokes to form definite shapes and pictures. Before receiving formal handwriting 
instruction, students must be able to form basic strokes smoothly, in the appropriate direction 
and with clean, precise intersections. The following are examples of basic strokes: 

• Vertical lines 

• Horizontal lines 

• Diagonal lines 

• Circles 

• Partial circle strokes 

It is very important that students learn to make these particular strokes from top-to- 
bottom and from left-to-right.The following activities give students an opportunity to practice 
using basic strokes: 

• Drawing 

• Painting 

• Sand play 

• Water play 

• Finger painting 

• Filling in the missing parts of pictures/letters 

• Connecting dots 

• Tracing 

• Drawing lines to connect matching pictures on paper/chalkboard 

Tips for improving handwriting 

Crampy, uneven letters are often the result of drawing the letters with the fingers 
rather than using the whole arm to write. 

If you use the right muscle groups, your writing £if$ifc. amA £A&A'np i ^ 
will have a smooth, easy flow and not look tortured. 
People for whom writing comes more easily may rest 

their hands fairly heavily on the paper, but their j^^j/^ ^Aj^ ^^ e ^w 
forearms and shoulders move as they write. They fl 

don't draw the letters with their fingers; the fingers ^—^ 

serve more as guides. 

Write in the air until it becomes as natural as breathing. It'll be awkward and feel silly 
at first. Remember: Your fingers should move very little and your wrist even less. Your 




VYY\ W\ 

forearm does most of the guiding, while your shoulder provides the power. Do not draw 

these strokes and figures! Use the same shoulder- 
forearm muscles you've been practising with. Make 
your lines, loops, circles and spirals freely. Work 
into a rhythm and make it a habit. When you start 
making slashes and circles, they'll be uneven. With 
practice, they'll become more uniform, and 

uniformity is your objective. Your goal is smooth, uniform, evenly spaced lines, loops, 

circles and spirals, without drawing them. 

Uniformity and consistency are your aims in all the exercises, whether loopy or slashy. 
Though it seems uncomfortable, these exercises will 
make a huge difference in your control and smoothness 
of writing. 

When you start putting the strokes and lines on 
paper, start out big. Three, four, even more lines in your 
notebook. This helps ensure that you continue to use 
the shoulder girdle. Don't try to make pretty letters at 
this stage. Do the exercises as much as you can - shoot 
for every day. Ten or fifteen minutes a day should show results in a few weeks for most 

Concentrate on that shoulder girdle. Let it do the work. Write big. Write words and 
sentences at the same time you're doing strokes and exercises. You need both working 
together to succeed. Gradually, as your control increases, make your strokes and letters 
smaller until they're the size you normally write. You'll know when you get there. By this 
time, you probably won't have to make extra effort to incorporate this stuff into your 
writing; it'll be automatic. And your writing should look much better. 



The intricate exercises on this 
page (of which this is only a sample 
show some of the movements 
students practised interminably to 
gain proficiency in the strokes used 
to make letters. Making a cursive 
handwriting worksheet using the 
same format as our other writing 
styles is difficult to accomplish. 
This occurs since most cursive 
letters are connected to each other, 
however, the beginning strokes of a 
letter follow different paths 
depending on the letter that 
precedes it. For example - the letter 


"y" in "boy" has a different beginning path than the "y" in "buy." In one case, the "y" begins 
from the top and in the other the beginning "y" stroke comes from the bottom of the "u." 
Some computer handwriting font designers attempt to overcome this problem by 
compromising the strokes. 

The following are some of the features of the Roman script used in English. Because you 
are used to these features you may expect the same in the language you are about to learn. 
However, it is possible that the language you are about to learn may use a different set of 
features and this difference may cause some difficulty in learning the new writing system. 

1. Writing on the line. English is written in straight line. A four-lined notebook helps 
students to learn which letters go above and which go below. Remember that a small 
change in the curve may lead to a different pronunciation. Compare d and b, o and p in 
your alphabet. 

2. Shape and size of letters in the handwritten form. You may find it difficult to form 
the basic shape of some letters. You may have some difficulty in distinguishing between 
the shapes of some letters. Before you practice learning any letter, give yourself some 
practice with the special characteristics of the shapes of letters in the language. For 
example, second language learners of English benefit by practising the curvy lines 
which closely resemble i, u, 1 and t. They are taught to look for the distinction between 
o, p, b, and d. They distinguish between p, g, and q, between 1 and t, between n and m, 
between 1 and k, between u, v, and w, and between y and g. 

3. Hand movements. English uses both clockwise and counter-clockwise movements, 
top to bottom, and bottom to top movements. For every letter, there is a conventional 
way of moving the hand while writing the same. This conventional way is taught, and 
students encouraged not to deviate from it as much as possible. Following the 
conventional hand movements helps in joining letters and in gaining a good speed in 
writing. Likewise, you should identify and learn the conventional hand movements in 
writing and joining letters in your target language. Do not try to devise your own hand 
movements. As far as possible follow the steps and hand movements used in writing 
the letters in the target language. There may be some freedom allowed, however such 
freedom is not unlimited. 

4. Capital letters. There is a complete set of capital letters in English. Except in the 
case of a few letters, capital letters and their corresponding small lower case letters 
are quite distinct from each other. As a result, the second or foreign language learners 
of English are taught to recognize the capital and small letters. Many languages may 
not have any provision for capitalization of letters. They may use some other ways to 
highlight the prominence of letters for meaning and/or ornamental purposes. In some 
languages, there is a clear distinction maintained between the handwritten form and 
the printed form of the letters. What is most important is that you develop a keen 
sense of pattern perception of the printed, display, and handwritten materials. The first 
word of a sentence in English must begin with a capital letter. Some words such as I 
must be written only in a capital letter whether it occurs in the beginning or middle or 


end of a sentence. Proper names must begin with a capital letter. There are several 
such important conventions which require the second/foreign language learner to master 
the use and writing of capital letters. Hand movements for the capital letters are different 
from the hand movements used for writing small, lower case letters. Students need to 
practise using capital letters by writing their own names and the names of towns, 
countries, months, etc. 

5. Small/lower case letters. More often than not, the beginners in English are first 
taught the small/lower case letters. By far these letters are more frequently used than 
the capital letters. Once again, the small letters form a set by themselves. The main 
focus of teaching the script revolves around the mastery of recognizing, writing small 
letters and associating them with their sound or sounds in English. 

6. Joining letters. Conventional way of writing letters in English is to join them within 
a word or word-like unit. Joining one letter with another requires practice and adoption 
of hand movements conducive to joining. There are several combinations of letters 
which are more frequent than others. For example, combinations of ta, ti, et, ot, th, nt 
and dt appear to be more frequent than the combinations found in words such as scythe 
and shotgun. A traditional way to teach joining is to ask students to join all the 26 
letters of the alphabet. Students were asked to write the model provided by the teacher 
many times, so that the students mastered the joining process. Accordingly, individual 
words are given to students and while they copy the word, they learn the letter joining 
process as well. Remember that it is important to show clearly how we make joins 
from the end of one letter to the beginning of the next. And this joining is not always 
the closest point. "You may follow the following model steps: Write c and h separately 
on the board. Point to where c ends and h begins and draw a line joining them. Then 
draw the joined letters several times, and describe the shape . . . then up to the top of 
the h, then down. . . .ch . Ask students to copy the joined letters several times. " 

7. There are three styles of handwriting: Printing, Simple Cursive, and Full 
Cursive. In printing, we keep the letters separate, and they look the same as in printed 
books. In simple cursive, most letters are joined, but the same basic shape as in printing 
is maintained. In Britain , most children learn this style, and most adults use it. However, 
in the United Kingdom and India, full cursive continues to be more popular. In full 
cursive, all the letters are joined, and many have different shapes from printing. 

8. Italics is another style used in printing for achieving certain effects. This style or 
convention also needs to be learned by the second or foreign language learner. 

9. Ornamental writing is hardly practsced these days. However, it continues to be used 
in the titles of movies, mastheads of newspapers, in degree certificates, etc., in English. 

What order to learn the letters? 

It is not absolutely necessary to learn the letters of your target language in alphabetical 
order. Some have introduced letters, rather groups of letters, based on the similarity they 
have perceived in shape, and hand movements in writing the letters. For example, they may 
first introduce o, then p, then b, and then d. The basic underlying shape is assumed to be a 


circle in these letters. Or letters may be introduced based on the hand movements - how 
one letter can be extended from a simple hand movement to another. 

The most popular way to learn the letters is to associate the first sound or the 
prominent sound of a word with a letter and then introduce the letter: a for apple, b for bat, 
c for cat, etc. 

When do we start learning handwriting? 

If you have learned to speak and comprehend some words and sentences, you should 
transfer these to the written level through copying exercises. And this process will reinforce 
what you have learned. 

Yet another way to learn the letters is to associate the letter with an object in which 
the letter can be easily embedded. For example, the letter S will be embedded in the picture 
of a swan, and taught/learned. 

Common Handwriting Issues 

Most students will learn correct letter formation through teacher modelling and student 
imitation and practice. However, there are a number of issues that may arise for some 
students. Some are listed below with suggested remedial strategies. 

Remediation strategies: 





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Problem 1 : Student cannot hold a large or regular size pencil 

This student may do better using a writing tool that is in the same proportion as the 
student's hand. Using a larger writing tool may be more clumsy for this particular student. 

Problem 2 : Student moves the entire arm when writing 

Make the student lie on the floor on his/her stomach when writing. This puts weight 
on the arm and allows the student to be stabilized. Multiple opportunities to write on vertical 
surfaces may also assist this student, as it naturally places the wrist in the correct functional 
position for writing as well as offers stability to the shoulder. 

Problem 3 : Student does not leave spaces between words 

Place stickers between each word and then have the student follow suit. Have the 
student use an inkpad to put a two-fingerprint space between each word as the student writes 
or the student can use a crayon and circle the space between each word. 

Problem 4 : Student writes with the fingers open or straight 

Place a small piece of sponge in the last two fingers. Ask the student to hold on to this 
while writing or cutting. 

Problem 5 : Student pushes down too hard when writing 

Have the student use a mechanical pencil. The student can write on a piece of foam. 

Problem 6 : Student writes too lightly 

Use a weighted pencil or try to correct pencil grip. 

Problem 7 : Student reverses letters 

Choose only one letter to correct at a given time. Students can use a slate chalkboard 
or white board for practice. Use a green light or smiley face at the starting corner for each 

Problem 8 : Student has poor posture 

Improper posture may get in the way of proper letter formation. If the student's feet 
cannot touch the floor, be certain to place a box or a stool under the student's feet. 

Problem 9 : Student has poor paper placement 

Young students who are right-handed should have the paper parallel to their table. If a 
student is left handed, the left hand corner of the paper should be higher. An arrow can be 
placed in the bottom corner of the paper- in the right corner for left-handed students and in 
the left corner for right handed students. Teach the students that the arrow should point to 
their belly button. 

Problem 10 : Student does not hold paper with the non-dominant hand 

A piece of tape can hold the paper down. Students can also be taught that the non- 
dominant hand has a special job to do. Student holds pencil too close or far from the tip- 
place a very small rubber band where the student's fingers should be held on the pencil. 
When a regular pencil is being held, tell students to hold the pencil where the paint ends. 



Development of Writing Abilities 

Dictation is an activity to coordinate the listening skill with the writing skill. Writing 
is a powerful instrument of thinking because it provides students with a way of gaining 
control over their thoughts. It aids in their personal growth and in their effecting change on 
the environment. Students are often unaware of the power of the written word, yet the written 
word enables the writer, perhaps for the first time, to sense the power of ... language to 
affect another. Through using, selecting and rejecting, arranging and rearranging language, 
the student comes to understand how language is used (Greenberg and Rath, 1985, p. 12). 

What is dictation? 

In its simplest form, dictation refers to a person reading some text aloud so that the 
listener(s) can write down what is being said. When used in the language classroom, the aim 
has traditionally been for students to write down what is said by the teacher, word for word, 
later checking their own text against the original and correcting the errors made. While this 
certainly has its uses, there are countless variations that can make it more interesting and 

• For example, a related activity, sometimes called 'dictogloss', requires the students to 
only take notes of the key words used as they listen and then later reconstruct the text so 
that it has the same meaning as the original text although perhaps not exactly the same 

• There is also emphasis on accuracy, but expectations here can be increased or decreased 
depending on the level of the class - the main aim is that the students understand and then 
re-convey the meaning of the passage, concentrating on the communicative aspect of the 
activity rather than producing a grammatically perfect text. 

Why do it? 

There are several reasons why dictation activities work well in the classroom. From 
the teacher's point of view, dictations: 

• Can be done with any level, depending on the text used 

• Can be graded for a multi-level class 

• Usually require very little preparation and photocopying 

• To save time, the class can be divided into two groups and the words/phrases dictated 
quickly with each group required to write down only half the words given. For example, 
the teacher says 'group 1: apple' 'group 2: potato' 'group 1: cucumber' 'group 2: carrot' 

• The students only write down the words given for their group. The students can then be 
paired up so that each pair has one person with each list of words and the matching activity 
can continue as normal. 

The dictations - 

• Can focus on both accuracy (form) as well as meaning - e.g. in the dictogloss activity 
described above. 


Can develop all four skills - speaking and pronunciation can be developed if the students 
do the dictating rather than the teacher. 

Give students the opportunity to notice features of pronunciation such as weak forms, 
linking and elision. 

Advantages of Giving Dictation 

1 . The dictation forces students to write at least 35 or 40 words in English every day 
and thus improve their general writing skill and perhaps increase their vocabulary. 

2. By making every English class begin with a dictation, some sort of uniformity or 
standardization is achieved. 

Some ideas on giving Dictation 

a All selected passages for dictation must consist of at least 40 words. All dictation 
passages must be written on the board and at least five words must be explained to the 
students. The instructor must ensure that no cheating takes place during the dictation. 

b. Each dictation should be read only three times. The first and the last readings should 
be done at normal speed. The second reading should be slow and clear. No explanation 
is needed during the reading. 

c. Mark allocation: 5 marks per dictation 2 mistakes = 1 mark off *mistakes include 

What are the potential problems? 

Some students (and teachers!) may have developed an aversion to dictation. It's 
important, therefore, to ensure that we vary the ways that we do dictation in class and 
encourage the students to focus on meaning as well as accuracy. All sorts of texts can be 
dictated, from single words of a vocabulary list to sentences from a dialogue to full 
paragraphs. These can also be dictated in the 'wrong' order, requiring students to unscramble 
them once it's finished. Using dictated texts as a precursor to further activities like this will 
help students to see them as an integrated part of the learning process. It is important that 
we and the students see these activities as learning experiences rather than as simply testing 
their ability to listen and copy words and sentences. 


A second common problem is that some students may find dictation more difficult 
than others, especially if you are teaching a multi-level class. 

Accuracy when checking 

Students often aren't very good at looking for mistakes in what they have written when 
comparing it to the original text. It can often be easier to check the errors in someone 
else's text rather than in our own. 


How can we make dictation more learner-centred? 

Instead of the standard formula of the teacher dictating the text, there are a number of 
ways of taking the focus off the teacher and onto the students themselves. 

• Cut the text up and distribute one line to each of the students. They then take turns dictating 
their sentence while the other students listen and write it down. Then give them a copy of 
the full text to compare with their own. 

• Divide the class into pairs and ask them to choose one person to be the 'writer' and 
another to be the 'runner' . Stick the text to be dictated up at one end of the room. The 
runners have to go to the text and return to their partners having memorised the first line 
of the text, which they dictate. They keep returning to the text until they have dictated the 
full text to their partner. The roles can be swapped halfway through. Their text is then 
compared to a correct version and corrected. This activity requires only a short text. 

• Do the dictation yourself but let the students control the speed that you speak at and the 
amount of repetition you do. For those who would like to try the "dictatory" method, a 
story used in a class is provided below: 

Story: THE SON 

She had received a phone call last night that had made her unable to sleep. He, that 
is, the caller had told her simply that he would come to see her the following day. He 
refused to tell her who he was. (day 1: 42 words) 

She waited breathlessly in her office. She kept her eyes fixed on the clock. It was 
nearly time. He had told her that he would come at nine sharp and it was nearly five to 
nine. Her heart was beating loudly as she waited for him. (day 2: 46 words) 

First she heard his footsteps just outside her door. She had told her secretary to 
let him in whoever he might be. Slowly, the door opened. Her heart was on fire as 
slowly someone came into her office. She kept her eyes tightly shut, (day 3: 44 words) 

"Hello, mother," said the boy who appeared to be thirteen or fourteen years of 
age. She was so shocked she could not speak. She tried once or twice to open her 
mouth, but no words would come out of it. (day 4: 40 words) 

"They told me you'd be surprised to see me," continued this young boy she had 
never seen before. "What do you mean by calling me, mother?" she finally found her 
voice. "Exactly what it means-you are my mother, aren't you?" said the young stranger. 

(day 5: 45 words) 

She had no answer to that. She was left speechless. She wondered, "Could it be 
true? Could the boy be telling the truth?" When she was very young she had given birth 
to a boy. But she had been told that he was still born. (day 6: 44 words) 


"Well, mother. Are you going to welcome me or not?" demanded the boy rather 
coldly. "I really don't know what to say. It's all so sudden, don't you see?" She replied 
rather weakly. "Perhaps, this will convince you that I am telling the truth." 

(day 7: 44 words) 

It was the wedding ring she had given to her sister long ago. "You were so wrapped 
up with dad's accident they didn't think you could take care of me. So they told you I 
was dead. But I am not. Here I am now." (day 8: 45 words) 

Write what you hear 

a. A list of words which have been giving trouble is first studied, with or without the 
teacher's help. The teacher calls a word, names a pupil from each team, and says 'Go' . 
These pupils each write the word on the blackboard. The first to finish correctly and 
with full legibility wins a point. 

b. As for 'a' , except that a pupil dictates the words to the whole class. The same or another 
pupil writes them on the board. 

c. As for 'b' , except that the activity is in separate groups, far enough apart not to disturb 
each other. Points are scored by individuals, or there is no scoring; or papers may be 
exchanged for marking by other groups. 

d. Certain words are given for study, and team representatives then dictate these to each 
other's teams. If this dictation cannot be given to all the teams simultaneously and 
separately, it can be given to the class as a whole and the score counted for only one 
team at a time. 

e. Second trial. Certain words are studied, and are then dictated by the teacher or pupils 
to the class as a whole or to teams. Correction is made, and the words re-studied, with 
or without the teacher's comment and guidance. Then they are dictated once more, 
possibly by a pupil who has got them all correct. It is a good thing for everybody, 
especially weak spellers, to keep their own personal lists of words they have found 
hard to spell, crossing them off (or getting the teacher to cross them off) when they 
prove they have mastered them. 

An effective device for measuring spelling improvement is the thermometer. These 
are simply upright lines which every child rules in his book. Every time a spelling test 
is given he marks the number of mistakes on the 'thermometer' (preferably in red) and 
puts the date of the test underneath. The idea is to get one's 'temperature' down to 
normal, so 'no mistakes' should be equated with 37° C. Pupils with numerous mistakes 
suffer from 'Spelling Fever' . 




Students will: 

■$■ Recognize writing as a constructive and recursive process. 
recognize and use what is known as the writing process 
use appropriate pre- writing and planning strategies 
develop ideas previously explored into draft form 
revise compositions 
share/present compositions. 

■$■ Practise the behaviours of effective writers. 

write introductions which engage interest and focus readers' attention 

achieve unity of thought and purpose 

write effective conclusions appropriate to the overall intent. 


Write fluently and confidently for a variety of purposes and audiences. 
write to reflect, clarify, and explore ideas 
write to describe, narrate, inform, and persuade 
present point of view in a personal or reflective essay 
outline a multi-paragraph composition 
write a paraphrase and precis of a passage read 
write an analysis of a literary text 
experiment with a variety of forms of writing. 


Pre - writing: 

• using pre- writing techniques to gather ideas 

• choosing a purpose and an audience 

• ordering ideas 


• putting ideas down on paper 

• exploring new ideas during writing 


• Editing: considering ideas and organization 

• Proofreading: correcting errors including sentence structure, usage, spelling, punctuation, 
and capitalization 

• Polishing 



• Sharing writing 


Pre- writing centres on engaging students in the writing process and helps them discover 
what is important or true for them about any subject at a particular time. What is certain, 
however, is that if students are to become capable writers they must develop pre-drafting 
skills. Experienced writers have their own methods, but inexperienced writers need 
motivation to write and assistance in uncovering concepts, experiences, and ideas about 
what to write. During the pre-writing phase, students need direction - a topic or something 
to discuss in writing. Topics can come from teachers but students also need to develop the 
skill of using their own insights and experiences (besides those of others) as writing material. 
Most often, the potential of possible topics is revealed through pre-drafting experiences 
such as the following: 

talking with and interviewing people who know something about a topic 


focused free writing (i.e., nonstop writing on an intended subject to crystallize ideas and 


mapping and webbing (i.e., drawing thought webs or graphic representations of the topic) 

writing "leads" (i.e., creating three or more opening sentences as a way of determining 

the shape and scope of the topic 


using reporters' questions (i.e., Who? What? When? Where? Why? How?) 

making similes and metaphors (i.e., asking "What is it like?") 

finding similarities and differences by comparing and contrasting concepts, pictures, and 


reading and examining written models to gather information about the topic or to notice 

genre, style, or tone 

viewing pictures, paintings, television, films, CD-ROMs, or slides 

using visualization and guided imagery 

listening to CDs, tapes, and records 

debating, role playing, and improvising 

exploring ideas in a journal. 

Purpose of creative writing 

to reflect, clarify, and explore ideas 

to express understanding 

to explain, inform, instruct, or report 

to describe 

to retell and narrate 

to state an opinion, evaluate, or convince 

to experiment. 



• specific person (e.g., self, teacher, friend, older person, younger person, parent) 

• specific group (e.g., class, team/club, grade, age group, special interest group) 

• general audience (e.g., school, community, adults, peers, students, unspecified). 

Writing Forms 

The ability to shape and organize ideas requires choosing a form that is appropriate to 
the audience and purpose. Students need experiences with a range of forms. Some examples 

personal experience narratives 



fictional narratives (e.g., short stories and novellas) 

diary entries 

journal entries 

learning logs 

poetry (e.g., ballads, acrostics, counted- syllable formats, free verse, song lyrics, other 




research reports 


news stories 

editorials and opinions 


correspondence (e.g., friendly letters; invitations; letters of thanks, complaint, application, 

sympathy, inquiry, protest, congratulation, apology) 

scripts (e.g., skits, plays, radio plays, TV commercials) 

oral histories 

eulogies and last will and testaments 


memoranda and messages 

instructions and advice 

rules and regulations 

minutes and forms 


resumes and cover letters. 

Through an appropriate balance of experiences with the previous purposes, audiences, 
and forms, students can become competent in a range of writing tasks. 


Organizing and Developing Ideas 

Writers not only need to think about what they are going to say but also about how they 
are going to say it. Pre-composing plans help students approach the blank page. During the 
pre- writing phase, students should also give some attention to how they might organize and 
develop their thoughts (Olson, 1992). Although these plans will be tentative, they are useful 
for getting started. Students need to organize their ideas in logical sequences. Several ways 
of developing and organizing ideas are possible depending on purpose and form. Some 
different ways of development and organization include: 

1. Chronological order 

• A chronological or step-by- step arrangement of ideas by time or order 
of occurrence, 
e.g.: A narration of an incident 

2. Spatial order 

• Spatial, geometrical, or geographical arrangement of ideas according 
to their position in space-left to right, top to bottom, or circular from 
general to specific or vice versa, 
e.g.: A description of an object or person 

3. Theoretical order 

• Supportive ideas of equal quality to prove a topic idea, 
e.g.: Reasons stated to convince. 

4. Common logical processses: 

definitive (e.g., is called, is made up of) 

classification and division (e.g., parts and relationships) 

order of importance (e.g., first, second) 

comparison and contrast (e.g., compared to, differs from) 

cause-effect (e.g., consequently, the reason for) 

problem- solution (e.g., problem, alternatives, decisions) 

pros and cons (e.g., strongly support, against) 

inductive and deductive (e.g., specific to general, broad to specific) 

dialectic (e.g., thesis/antithesis/synthesis). 

Students could consider constructing a map, a chart, an outline, a visual organizer, or a 
ladder diagram to organize their main ideas and supporting details. 

5. Drafting 

During this phase, writers produce a first draft. Additional drafts can be written that 
further shape, organize, and clarify the work. 

During drafting, teachers should encourage students to: 

• say what they mean as directly as they can. 


• be themselves; write from their own point of view or assume a new persona or voice 
from which to write. 

• write as though they were "telling" the reader about the topic. 

Committing their thoughts to paper or computer screen is not an easy task for all students. 
Strategies such as the following may facilitate the translating of ideas into first and 
successive drafts. 

• Mapping: Creating a map of additional ideas and reconceptualizing ways to order them 
as they write, may help students capture their ideas before they are lost. 

• "Writing-off' leads: Creating several first lines and then using the key words and direction 
suggested by one of these leads may get drafts underway for students. 

• Fast or free writing: Writing an entire first draft as quickly as possible without rereading 
or pausing to attend to mechanics may help students create their first draft. 

• Personal letters: Writing a first draft as if it were a personal letter to one specific 
person such as a friend may free students to create their first draft. 

• Conferencing: Talking about ideas with a teacher or peer may help students see how 
they can start and develop their first draft. 

• Reflecting and questioning: Pausing to ask themselves what they are saying and if they 
need to say more or to say it differently may help students move their drafts forward. 

Revising - Editing and Proof-reading 

Drafts reflect the struggle to get words down on paper and, as such, they are usually 
rough and incomplete. Revising brings a work to completion. It is a complex process of 
deciding what should be changed, deleted, added, or retained. Revising is the general post- 
writing procedure which involves editing (revising for ideas and form) and proofreading 
(revising for sentence structure, spelling, punctuation, and capitalization). 

Useful strategies for revising ideas and form include: 

• Students can read compositions aloud and possibly tape them. 

• Students can examine compositions in relation to specific questions or guidelines. (E.g., 
Is my composition clear? Is there something that I can do to make it clearer or more 
appealing? Do my ideas and form address the needs of my audience?) 

• Students can use a revision process which involves them in working through various 
"passes" (Perrin, 1992). 

The following are some examples 

1 . Edit for truth and accuracy. 

(e.g., Did the Prime Minister really say his opponent had a face like a ferret? Why 
correct the spelling at this point if you might change the sentence?) 

2. Edit for organization. 

(e.g., Is each paragraph appropriately placed?) 


3. Edit for paragraph structure. 

(e.g., Does each paragraph have atopic sentence?) 

4: Edit for sentence structure. 

(e.g., Does each sentence have a verb? Is there variation in sentence length?) 

5. Edit for word choice. 

(e.g., Have you used "less" when you mean "fewer"?) 

6. Edit for spelling and punctuation. 

7. Edit for conciseness and clarity. 

(e.g., Is there anything else that should be removed? Added?) 

Proof-reading involves reading for conventions rather than content. Proof-reading 
and editing are not mutually exclusive. During the editing process, some proof-reading may 
occur and during proof-reading, further editing may occur. Proof-reading is the process of 
checking a draft to make sure that the following conventions are correct and appropriate: 

• paragraph structure 

• sentence structure (syntax) 

• word choice (diction) 

• usage 

• spelling 

• capitalization 

• punctuation 

• appearance (e.g., spacing, indentation, page numbers). 


Conferences can take numerous forms and the teacher does not always need to be 
directly involved. In fact, students should be encouraged to discuss their writing with their 
classmates. Students can meet with one or two classmates to ask for advice, share a piece 
of writing, or revise a composition. 

In peer conferences, students need to know how to maintain a helpful and supportive 
relationship.. Teachers need to take time to model good responses and set some ground 
rules such as the following: 

• Be positive. Respond to what the writer is trying to say and what the writer does well. 
Tearing down another person's work will only result in discouragement and hurt feelings. 

• Be helpful. Do your best to make comments that will be useful to the writer. 

• Be specific. Talk about specific words, phrases, or paragraphs 

Students can be encouraged to use the PQP method of peer response: 

> P (Praise) What do you like about my paper? 

> Q (Question) What questions do you have about my paper? 

> P (Polish) What specific improvements could I make? 


Peer conference guides such as the following can also be used. 

Sample Peer Conference Guide 

Written Work 

Discuss the following: 

1. What I liked most: 

2. The main idea seems to be: 

3. Your organization is: 

4. Questions I have are: 

5. An idea to try is: 

6. Additional comments: 

In any teacher- student conference, the key to success lies in asking questions that 
teach, questions that lead students to discover what they have to say and want to communicate, 
and that encourage them to talk about the work. The teacher can, for example, ask: 

How is it going? 

Where are you now in your draft? 

Can you tell me more about that? 

Can you say more about ...? 

What do you think you will do next? 

Where do you want this piece to go? 

If you put that idea in, where could it go? 

The value of revision is that students learn to "re-see" and rethink their writing. Ideally, 
students should go beyond concern for just the product of writing and become equally 
concerned with the process of writing. 

Recitations and Evaluations: 

•$■ What words have you written? Can you spell them for me? 

*v* Have adult volunteers or "older scholars" check slates / notebooks for correctness. 

In many language classes, a mnemonic called "C A.R.E." is used for helping students 
to remember the four basic ways to revise. As all writers think their writing is important, 
they must CARE for it. 

C = Cross out ideas, sentences, paragraphs, words using the delete symbol 

A = Add images, figurative language, dialogue, thoughts, using the caret, speech, and thought 

R = Rearrange ideas to make sure they are in an order that make sense 

E = Exchange "tired" words like big, nice, good, etc. for more vivid words 


What is Story Mapping? 

A story map is a visual depiction of the settings or the sequence of major events and 
actions of story characters. This procedure enables students to relate story events and to 
perceive structure in literary selections. By sharing personal interpretations of stories 
through illustrations, students increase their understanding and appreciation of selections. 
Story maps can be used as frameworks for storytelling or retelling, and as outlines for story 

How to make a story map? 
The Setting 

Characters : Tell who is in the story. 



: Tell where the story takes place. 

: Tell when the story happens . 

The Problem 

One or more characters has a difficulty. What is the difficulty or problem? 


One or more of the characters has a goal - something 
they need or want to happen. Usually this goes along with 
the problem. 

The Events 

Events 1, 2 & 3: Things that happen in the story that tell how the characters 
get from the problem and goal to the ending of the story. 

The Ending 

What happened at the end of the story. Tells how the character achieved his 
goal and solved his problem. 



To sum up, story mapping is away of visually representing the major parts of a story. 
The focus is typically on the three main elements of a story: the beginning, middle, and end. 
The students are directed to concentrate on the most important events of the three main 
elements, and not get hung up with minor details. 

main event 

main event 

main event 

1 . The teacher reads the story to the class, or has them read it silently. The more familiar 
they are with the story, the more successful they will be. 

2. The teacher draws an outline of the story map onto the board. The middle circle will 
contain the title of the story. From that circle, the teacher draws three lines to connect 
to three other circles containing the terms; beginning, middle, and end. 

3. The students recall and list the most important events connected to each of the three 
story element parts. This is done by drawing lines from the story element (beginning, 
middle, end) to another circle with the event written within. 

4. After the story map is complete, the students use it to orally retell the story, illustrate 
main events, write a summary, or act it out. 

Summary Blueprints 

This strategy helps students to read and learn from content area texts. This strategy 
helps students select the main information from a text by using a graphic representation of 
the story structure as a guide. 

1 . The teacher shares and discusses with the students 
the summary blueprint. 

2. The students read the assigned text. 

3. The students complete the summary blueprint by 
filling in the setting, characters, plot and ending. 

4. The students create a written summary about the 
text using information gathered from the summary 

5. The students share and discuss their work. 





Final Summary 


Two- Column Notes for Plot & Conflict Resolution 

This strategy helps students with a story's plot development and resolution by using a 
graphic organizer. This organizer uses two columns. The first column lists the following 
story elements; setting, characters, problem(s), event(s), and resolution. The second column 
is for the students to complete using information from the story. 

1 . The teacher introduces the graphic organizer. 

2. The students read an assigned story. 

3. The students complete the two-column notes using their 
knowledge of the story. 

4. The students share and discuss their notes with the class. 

5. The students may add illustrations. 

Assessment & Evaluation Considerations 

• Note students' ability to identify main story characters and events. 

• Note students' ability to sequence story events. 

• Story maps reveal students' level of comprehension of story events and structure. 

• Variations among students' story maps illustrate their personal interpretations. 







Game-1: Familiar Things 

Talk about 'sets' of household objects or other familiar things, such as 'utensils', 
'clothes', 'vehicles'. Ask children to name different things that would come under a 
set (e.g. spoons, pans, cups, under 'utensils'). List all things that form a set on the 
blackboard. Form two groups of children. Every child in the first group will copy the 
name of one thing from the list. For instance, someone else will have 'thali' . Children 
of the second group will now demand things, one at a time. Whoever has the demanded 
thing in the first group must stand up and go over to the child who has demanded it, and 
show him how to write the word he had copied earlier. 

Game-2: Collecting Signs 

Depending on the area where you work, you can choose signs of different kinds. 
In villages, sign boards and notices in bus stops, hospitals, and other public places can 
be used. 

Ask children to copy the signs they see on their way to school. Write all the signs 
on the blackboard and ask children to explain where they found them and what they 


Game-3: Completing Words '. 

Pair all children. One child will start a word, the other one will finish it. They will I 

take turns till each has completed ten words successfully. ; 

Game-4: Just One Word * 


Form groups of five. Each group will have a piece of paper or copybook to write ; 

on, and at least a pencil. Select one child as the 'starter' in each group. • 

The starter thinks of a sentence but he can only write one word on the paper ; 

which now goes to the next child in the group. This child can also contribute just one • 

word - that goes with the first which is already there. The paper keeps going around till '. 


the sentence is complete. ; 

Anyone can decide at any point that the sentence has become 'sick' and therefore '. 

must be abandoned. If others agree, the group gives the paper back to the starter or ; 

selects a different starter to write a fresh word. > 

Game-5: Drawing a Map 

Ask children to tell the class how they go home. First tell them how you go 
home-describing briefly but clearly two or three things that you meet on your way. 

When every child has had a chance to speak, ask them to draw a map showing the 
route they have just talked about. To demonstrate, draw the map showing your route on 
the blackboard. Go to each child as the map-making is in progress and write the name 
of one of the objects that he wants to show on the map, such as 'tree' , ' shop' , mailbox' , 
etc. Ask the child to copy the word just below the object in his map. 

Next time, do this activity by talking about the way to some other place, such as 
'my friend's house', 'temple'. Each time you organize this activity, increase the number 
of words you write in the map. 

Game-6: Places Around Us 

This is an extension of the last activity, but this time we ask children to draw 
maps of spaces or places they know rather than of the way to get there. Examples: 
the school's backyard 
the classroom 
nearby pond or river 
Write the name of any one object shown in the map at the appropriate place. Ask 
children to make the same map again, writing the name of the object where it belongs 
in the map. 


'. Game-7: Writing About Pictures '. 

• • 

• • 

; See activity No. 8 in the chapter on 'Talk' and organize it with older children, ; 

" asking them to write answers to your question. ' 

• • 

; Use children's own pictures as well as advertisements, magazines, etc. Start by '. 

• asking children to describe the picture, then proceed to the more complex questions. • 

* Game- 8: Making Poetry • 

• • 

; Make groups of five. Give four lines of poetry to each group and ask them to add ; 

I four more lines . Let each group go away to some distance for fifteen or twenty minutes '. 
I of discussion. ; 

Write (or form) what you know 

a Riddles and definitions lend themselves chiefly to vocabulary work, but they should 
be simple and the answer is to be written. 

The teacher says, for example, 'Write down the name of something we hold over our 
heads when it rains'. The pupils hopefully write 'umbrella', or better, 'an umbrella'. 
'And now something that we can wear when it rains' . 'A raincoat' . 'What do we call 
very heavy rain?' 'A downpour'. This of course, is fairly advanced. Preferably, except 
at a very advanced stage, the vocabulary should belong to a subject the class has been 
reading or writing about recently. It is better for the questions to follow on one from 
another, and not to be on completely different subjects. The answer-words should be 
painstakingly selected by the teacher beforehand, and the questions framed with a proper 
regard for the pupils' level of achievement and intelligence. 

Further examples: What has four legs and a back but no head? (A chair.) What do we 
use to cut our meat? (A knife.) You can walk or drive along it. (A road.) It lives in rivers 
and has sharp, dangerous teeth. (A crocodile) 

b. Finding words spelt similarly to the first word given is also a fairly advanced learners' 
activity, since it presupposes that the pupils have a substantial vocabulary to draw on. 

The teacher gives a word, e.g. unhappy, and asks the pupils to think of other words they 
know which begin in the same way - uninteresting, unintelligent, unwise, unending, 
undo, untie, un-wholesome, etc. They can be written on the board, adjectives in one 
column and verbs in another. 'Odd men out' like inactive, illiterate, and immature might 
have to be written up separately. But if this is a spelling activity it should not be allowed 
to slide over too much into vocabulary work. 

If the teacher suspects someone of not knowing the meaning of a word which he or she 
has produced, he can always ask for a sentence or an explanation. 

English spelling has its oddities. Grouping words of the same spelling pattern together 
is an aid to memory. Thus work, word, worse, worm, world, etc., show a regular 
correspondence of the letters wor- to the sound /w/ followed by a certain vowel, and 


bought, fought, nought, sought, etc., a similar correspondence of the letters- 'ought 
to a certain vowel sound followed by the sound l\l, however these vowel and consonant 
sounds may be spelt in other words. The words grouped should, of course, be words 
the pupils have already met with. 

c. Word-completion is a game for both elementary and intermediate pupils. The image 
of the word is fairly well known, or else can be found somewhere, say on the board or 
in a book. The difficulty is in part of the word; for instance, it may be a matter of ie and 
not ei, or of having a double instead of single letter. 

It is preferable, even when spelling is our main concern, to present the incomplete 

word in a sentence: A p man is someone who delivers letters. Here there are three 

letters to fill in (o s t). In the above example the number of dashes shows how many 
letters are missing, but to make things more difficult there might be only one dash. 
However, the teacher should wish to get the right solution rather than make things 
difficult. On the other hand, if these little problems are below the learners' level they 
soon become boring. 

Bowen et al. (1985) suggest the following: When the student is able to write words from 
memory, he may be asked to 

• list objects in pictures. 

• draw and label his own pictures. 

• make personalized stationery by drawing a personal letterhead. 

• make a monthly calendar or birthday card for a classmate. 

• draw a picture map of his neighborhood or another familiar area. 

Alphabetizing tasks provide writing practice. These include the following. 

• List five words that begin with 

• Rearrange the following words in alphabetical order: 

• Write a girl's name that begins with . 

• Find two objects in the picture whose names begin with . 

• Rearrange the letters in an alphabetical order. 

As the beginner's knowledge of English increases through what he is learning to say 
and read and to generate new words phrases and sentences, he may be asked to 

• make topical vocabulary lists. 

• make associational pairs or groups of words. 

• prepare antonyms. 

• prepare synonyms. 

• make familiar paradigms like the days of the week or the months. 

• make personal lists, such as items on a shopping list, food served at a meal, and packing 

At this stage the student may practice his signature in cursive form. 

From words students go on to short word groups such as phrases. 

From the above steps, proceed to extend phrase writing into sentence writing. 


The Conventions of Writing 

Good writing requires a host of skills in content, organization, and style (including 
the conventions of written English). The conventions of writing are the generally accepted 
mechanics of language. They make communication possible. During the proof-reading stage, 
students attend to the following: 

• form (e.g., paragraph, essay) 

• sentence structure (syntax) 

• word choice (diction) 

• usage 

• spelling 

• punctuation and capitalization 

• appearance (e.g., spacing, indentation, page numbers, quality of handwriting). 

Students need to understand that readers expect certain conventions in writing. Surface 
errors distract the reader. A good revision guide, one that includes editing and proofreading 
criteria, is a start. Students need to understand how the guide can assist them. 


Form is basic to all writing. During writing, ideas are given shape and structure. Students 
need to understand the various formats available to them and understand that purpose dictates 
the format of each composition. Clear, practical instruction and practice with many models 
help students understand the range of writing forms available to them. 

Prose Forms 

The following list illustrates the range of prose forms: 

-Y- Description: paragraph, essay, character portrait or sketch 

•$■ Narration: paragraph, essay, anecdote, short story, diary, journal, biography, 
autobiography, fable, parable, myth, legend, personal letter 

-y- Exposition: paragraph, essay, report, article, character study, research paper, news story, 
newspaper column, business letter, review, memo 

-y- Persuasion: paragraph, essay, brief, editorial, letter to the editor, review, column. 


It is important that learning experiences in the classroom be assessed in an authentic 
manner. The traditional grading of papers still has a legitimate place in the English language 
arts classroom but should not be the sole means of assessing writing. Rather, continuous 
assessment should mirror instruction and be interwoven with it. Continuous assessment is 
vital in order that teachers gain a clear, reliable picture of how students are progressing and 
how well the methods of instruction address students' needs. 

Writing assessment can take many forms and should take into account both product 
and process. In process assessment, teachers monitor the process students go through as 


they write. In product assessment, teachers evaluate students' finished compositions. In 
both types of assessment, the goal is to help students become better and more confident 

Process Assessment 

Teachers watch students as they engage in writing in order to determine strengths, 
abilities, and needs. Teachers observe in order to learn about students' attitudes and interests 
in writing, the writing strategies that they use, and how students interact with classmates 
during conferencing. While observing, teachers may ask students questions such as: How is 
it going? What are you writing about? Where do you want this piece to go? This type of 
informal observation enables teachers to make informed instructional decisions and 
demonstrates to students that teachers are supportive of their efforts during the writing 

Conferencing is a central means of assessing the writing process. A student-teacher 
conference is a meeting to discuss work-in-progress. As teachers listen to students talk 
about writing, they can learn how to help students work through the process. A conference 
can occur at various points of the writing process. Teachers' questions can lead students to 
discuss what they know, what they are doing, what they find confusing, or of what they are 
proud. Teachers should balance the amount of their talk with the students' talk and allow the 
students to take responsibility for discussing and thinking about their own writing. 

The key to success in any conference lies in asking questions that teach. The following 
are examples: 

As students begin to write: 

What will your topic be? 

How did you choose (or narrow) your topic? 

What pre- writing activities are you doing? 

How are you gathering ideas for writing? 

How might you organize your writing? 

How might you start writing your rough draft? 

What form might your writing take? 

Who might be your audience? 

What do you plan to do next? 

As students are drafting: 

How is your writing going? 
Are you having any problems? 
What do you plan to do next? 

As students revise their writing: 

How do you plan to revise your writing? 
What kinds of revisions did you make? 


Are you ready to make your final copy? 

What kinds of mechanical errors have you located? 

How has your editor helped you proofread? 

How can I help you identify (or correct) mechanical errors? 

What do you plan to do next? 

After students have completed their compositions: 

With what audience will you share your writing? 

What did your audience say about your writing? 

What do you like best about your writing? 

If you were writing the composition again, what changes would you make? 

How did you engage in the phases of the writing process in writing this composition? 

Using anecdotal records and checklists, teachers can chart students' development and 
gather information that will help them determine grades and quality. Anecdotal records 
provide teachers with details about students' writing. Over time, these records provide 
comprehensive pictures of the students as writers. 

Self Assessment 

When students assess their own writing and writing processes, they develop a sense 
of responsibility. In self- assessment, students assess their own writing and decide which 
pieces will be shared or evaluated. As students work through the writing process, they may 
address the quality and effectiveness of the writing. They may also judge if they have met 
the requirements for the given assignment. Early in the course, teachers can introduce 
students to the concept of self-assessment by creating a handout with questions such as the 

Sample Self-assessment 

1. Does my composition make sense? 

2. Does it say what I want it to say? 

3. Does it say it clearly? 

4. Can the reader follow my thinking (i.e., my organization)? 

5. Are there any details that need to be deleted? Added? 

6. Am I happy with this composition? 

7. What makes this piece of writing strong? Weak? 

Students' reflections and insights are an important element of evaluation. Most classes, 
with practice, are capable of assisting the teacher in establishing evaluative criteria. Teachers 
should clearly communicate to students their expectations regarding evaluation. 



Student's Name 




P = Poor (1-35) 

A = Average (36-60) 

G = Good (60-90 

E = Excellent (91-100) 














• Practises 

• Introduction 


behaviours of an 

of peer 


effective speaker 

• Practises 
effective group 

• Expresses point 
of view 

• Summarizes 
main points and 
evaluation of 

• Others 

• Prepared 

• Storyboard 

• Grouptalk 

• Summary 


• Practises 

• Listening/ 


of good listener 

• Follows 

• Practises an 

• Analyzes own 

• Others 

viewing guide 

• Notes 

• Listening/ 















• Uses writing 

• Paragraphs: 



• Descriptive 


• Is aware of 
and purpose 

• Organizes ideas 

• Actively revises 
own writing 

• Edits and proof- 
reads others' 

• Others 

• Narrative 

• Expository 

• Persuasive 

• Letter 

• News article 

• Essay 

• Script 

• Peer editing 


• Practises 

• Response log 


behaviours of an 
effective reader 

• Maintains a 
response log 

• Summarizes 
information read 

• Identifies values 
and points of 
view in reading 

• Others 

• Genre 

• Poetry 

• Film 

. Other 

• Summary 

• Quizzes 

• Reading self- 


Unit Test 


Unit Mark/Grade 


Comments such as the following can help students develop writing skills and can validate 
them as writers. 


• I can picture this. 

• I know just what you mean. I've felt this way too. 

• Make this part a little more specific. 

Beginnings and Endings 

• Strong introduction. It makes me want to read this paper. 

• Your ending came so quickly that I felt I missed something. 

• Your wrap-up really captured the whole mood of the paper. 

• The conclusions seemed a little weak. I felt let down. 


• This was very well organized. I could follow it easily. 

• I am confused about how this fits. 

• I am not sure what the focus of the paper is. 

• How is this connected to the sentence or idea before it? 

• This sentence or paragraph seems overloaded. Too much happens too fast and I cannot 


Can you add detail here? I cannot see the whole picture. 

Good description. I could make a movie of this. 

Adding some physical description would help me see this more clearly. 

Tell me more about this. I need more information. 

An example here would help us support your case more willingly. 

The use of dialogue here would help me see this person more vividly. 

I am not sure what you mean. Let's talk. 

Structure and Language 

Notice that you have a number of short sentences here. Can you combine them to improve 

the flow? 

This sentence is a whopper! Break it up, please. 

Good word choice. It really captures the essence of what you are saying. 

Your language seems a bit overblown. I do not hear you talking and that distracts me. 

Usage and Mechanics 

Oops — you changed tenses and confused me. 

You switched from the third person to the first. I can understand it, but it does distract. 
You capitalize words randomly. Let me sit down with you in workshop and show you 
some things. 

• Break your work into sentences so I can more clearly see which ideas are related. 

It is common practice for teachers to assign a grade or score to students' writing 
products. Forms of scoring include both holistic and analytic. 


Holistic Scoring 

Teachers read the compositions for a general impression and, according to this 
impression, award a numerical score or letter grade. All aspects of the composition — content 
and conventions — affect the teacher's response, but none of them is specifically identified 
or directly addressed using a checklist. This approach is rapid and efficient in judging overall 
performance. It may, however, be inappropriate for judging how well students applied a 
specific criterion or developed a particular form. A sample holistic scoring rubric follows, 
with scores ranging from 5 to 1 . 

Sample Holistic Writing Rubric 

5/5 Ideas are insightful and well considered. This writing has a strong central focus and is 
well organized. The organizational pattern is interesting, perhaps original, and provides 
the piece with an introduction which hooks the reader and carries the piece through to 
a satisfying conclusion. If there are errors in mechanics, they are the result of the 
student taking a risk with more complex or original aspects of writing. 

4/5 Ideas are thoughtful and clear. This writing has a clear and recognizable focus. A standard 
organizational pattern is used, with clear introduction, transitions, and conclusion. 
The writer's voice and tone maintain the reader's interest. The few errors in mechanics 
do not impede communication or annoy the reader unduly. 

3/5 Ideas are straightforward and clear. This piece of writing has a recognizable focus, 
though there may be superfluous information provided. The organizational pattern 
used is clear and includes a basic introduction and conclusion though it may be 
formulaic or repetitive. The writer's voice and tone establish, but may not maintain, 
the reader's interest. The mechanics show less effort and attention to proofreading 
than needed. 

2/5 Ideas are limited and overgeneralized but discernible. It is underdeveloped and lacks 
clear organization. There may be an introduction without a conclusion, or the reverse, 
a conclusion with no introduction. The point of view is unclear and there are frequent 
shifts in tense and person. 

1/5 Ideas are elementary and may not be clear. This piece of writing lacks focus and 
coherence. The organizational pattern and development of the topic are confusing. 
Point of view may shift in a confusing way. Mechanical errors are abundant and interfere 
with understanding. The piece must be read several times to make sense of it. 

Sample Holistic Rubric fora specific product, e.g.: Letter and Resume 
It is important for students to be given evaluation criteria before they begin writing. 
A covering letter and resume could be evaluated using the following criteria. Rubric means, 
words put on a heading to show or explain how something should be done. 
5/5 Letter and resume are complete, succinct, neat, free of mechanical errors, and properly 

4/5 Letter and resume are generally complete but wording and formatting could be 
improved. There may be details missing and a mechanical error or two. 


3/5 Letter and resume are adequate but appearance could be improved. There may be several 
mechanical errors. Information may be missing or unnecessary information may be 

2/5 Letter and resume do not make a good impression on the reader. Important facts have 
been left out or are disorganized. There are a number of mechanical errors. 

1/5 Back to the drawing board. The letter and resume are incomplete, unclear, and contain 
numerous mistakes. 

Analytic Scoring 

In analytic scoring, teachers read compositions focusing on a pre-determined list of 
criteria. Although this type of analysis is more time consuming than other measures, it does 
provide detailed feedback. Diederich's Scale ( 1 974) is the most widely used analytic measure 
but it must be used cautiously in order to reflect the instructional focus. It is easy to adapt 
the scale for specific purposes. The following is an example: 

Sample Analytic Scoring Criteria 

1: Poor, 2: Weak, 3: Average, 4: Good, 5: Excellent 
Writer: Reader: 

Quality and development of ideas 





Organization, relevance, movement 





Style, flavour, individuality 





Wording and Phrasing 





Grammar, sentence structure 















Manuscript form, legibility 





Total score 

A sample analytic scoring guide for measuring specific aspects of a multi-paragraph 
composition is shown below. 

Sample Analytic Scoring Guide 

Quality and Development of Ideas (10/25) 

When marking the quality and development of ideas the marker should consider how 
thoughtfully and effectively, within the context of the writing situation, the writer: 

> Communicates and integrates ideas (information, events, emotions, opinions, 
perspective, etc.) 

> Includes details (evidence, anecdotes, examples, descriptions, characteristics, etc.) to 
support, develop, and/or illustrate ideas. 


9-10 Ideas are insightful and well considered. This writing has a strong central focus and 
exhibits unique comprehension and insight that is supported by carefully chosen 
evidence. Sophisticated reasoning and literary appreciation are evident. 

7-8 Ideas are thoughtful and clear. This writing has a clear and recognizable focus and 
exhibits a comprehensive and intimate knowledge of the subject matter. Literary 
interpretation is more logical/sensible than insightful. 

5 - 6 Ideas are straightforward and clear. This writing has a recognizable focus and exhibits 
adequate development of content, although interpretation is more common place 
and predictable. 

3-4 Ideas are limited and overgeneralized but discernible. This writing has an inconsistent 
or wandering focus and, although it exhibits some development of topic, ideas are 
often superficial and supporting evidence is vague or weak. 

1-2 Ideas are elementary and may not be clear. This writing lacks focus and coherence 
and shows little or no development of topic. What is there is generalized and 
unsupported, so that there is little evidence of understanding. 

Organization (5/25) 

When marking organization the marker should consider how effectively, within the 
context of the writing situation, the writer: 

> creates an introduction 

> establishes and maintains focus 

> orders and arranges events, ideas, and/or details 

> establishes relationships between events, ideas, and/or details 

> provides closure. 

5 The introduction clearly states the direction the essay will take and invites further 
reading. Ideas are clearly and coherently developed and show evidence of critical 
thinking. The conclusion logically and thoughtfully completes the essay. 

4 The introduction provides direction for the reader and the ideas generally focus and 
sustain the topic. Ideas are developed clearly and the conclusion effectively completes 
the essay. 

3 The introduction provides some direction for the reader and the ideas are usually focussed 
but show little imagination. Ideas are clear but may lack coherence. The conclusion 
offers little insight. 

2 The introduction is weak and relates only marginally to the body of the essay. There is 
no focus and the ideas are not clearly developed. The conclusion provides no real 

1 The introduction, if there is one, does not contribute to a discernible controlling idea. 
Development of the topic is meagre or superficial. The conclusion, where present, is 
unclear or unrelated to the development provided. 


Style (5/25) 

When marking style the marker should consider how clearly and effectively, within 
the context of the writing situation, the writer: 

> makes use of diction 

> uses syntactical structures (such as parallelism, balance, etc.) 

> makes choices that contribute to the creation of voice. 

5 The writer has chosen appropriate details and established a definite point of view that 
enhances the writing. Diction is clear, vivid, and precise. Syntax is varied, effective, and 
polished. The writer's voice and tone consistently sustain the reader's interest. 

4 The writer has established a point of view and a sense of audience, and shows awareness 
of language and structure. Diction is effective. Syntax is generally effective. The writer's 
voice and tone maintain the reader's interest. 

3 The writer's point of view is clear and consistent and shows a basic understanding. 
Diction is adequate but somewhat generalized. Syntax is straightforward. The writer's 
voice and tone establish, but may not maintain, the reader's interest. 

2 The writer's point of view is unclear and the choice of diction is imprecise and/or 
inappropriate. Control of syntax is limited and results in lack of clarity. The writing 
exhibits superficial and/or minimal awareness of the reader. 

1 The writer's point of view may shift in a confusing way. Diction is inappropriate and 
unclear. Syntax is confusing and results in unclear writing. Awareness of the reader is 
not apparent. 

Mechanics (5/25) 

When marking mechanics the marker should consider how clearly and effectively, 
within the context of the writing situation, the writer communicates by applying the 
conventions of: 

> sentence structure 

> vocabulary and spelling 

> grammar, including subject- verb agreement, pronoun- antecedent agreement, correct and 
consistent verb tenses 

> punctuation and capitalization. 

5 Sentences are correct. Any mechanical errors are the result of taking a risk with more 
complex or original aspects of writing. The writing demonstrates a strong command of 
the conventions of language. 

4 Sentences are substantially correct, with errors only in attempts at more complicated 
constructions. The few mechanical errors do not impede communication. The writing 
demonstrates a solid control of the conventions of language. 

3 Common and simple constructions and patterns are correct. Information is clear despite 
a faltering in mechanics. The writing demonstrates a general control of the conventions 
of language. 


2 Sentences having uncomplicated structures are usually clear, but attempts at more 
difficult structures result in awkwardness and/or obscured communication. 

1 The writing exhibits a lack of knowledge in the use of sentence structure, usage, grammar 
and mechanics. The writing demonstrates only an elementary grasp of the conventions 
of language. 


Writing a review of books is an advanced writing skill. Exposing students to book 
reviews in newspapers and periodicals is a healthy practice at school level. This shall 
introduce them to the best books released by leading publishers. Developing the skill of 
writing reviews of books needs to be developed gradually. A teacher shall share the best part 
of a book he/she has recently enjoyed reading and thus develop a desire in the pupil to read 
books in their school library have been discussed in Section- A (pp. 40-41) of this source 
Translation - A developmental skill of language learners 

Translation is a rather more complex task than one would tend to think. Language is 
actually one of the best indicators of the complexity of mankind's nature, relationships and 
activities. It entails emotions, thoughts, beliefs, intentions, double meanings etc. And every 
language has its own very specific rules one needs to be aware of and respect. 

Translation is the interpreting of the meaning of a text and the subsequent production 
of an equivalent text. It communicates the same message in another language. The text to be 
translated is called the 'source text', and the language that it is to be translated into is 
called the 'target language', the final product is sometimes called the 'target text'. 

Translation must take into account constraints that include context, the rules of grammar 
of the two languages, their writing conventions and their idioms. Acommon misconception 
is that there exists a simple word-for-word correspondence between any two languages, 
and that translation is a straight forward mechanical process. Such a word-for-word 
translation, however, cannot take into account context, grammar, conventions and idioms. 
Translation is fraught with the potential for 'spilling over' of idioms and usages from one 
language into the other, since both languages coexist within the translator's mind. Such 
spilling-over easily produces linguistic hybrids such as Tanglish (a mixture of Tamil and 
English). Translation of literary works (novels, prose pieces, short stories, plays, poems 
etc.) is considered a literary pursuit in its own right. 

Using Graphic Organizers for Developing and Assessing Writing Skills 

A language teacher employs various techniques for developing children' language skills. 
Graphic organizers help a child to plan his/her writing and revise the work too before 
handing it in for evaluation to the teacher. Besides the assessment rubric enables a teacher 
to exactly look for the organization and presentation of ideas in creative writing. A repeated 
use of such graphic organizers make the process of learning to write easy and effortless 
too. Besides the evaluation also becomes systematic and formative. The more the language 
teacher employs such viable devices in the classrooms the more enjoyable learning becomes. 
Let us see some of the examples of Graphic organizers. 


W riting a-z 

Personal N attative 




Instructions: Check the box next to each number that best describes the student's writing. 




4. Developed introduction in paragraph form 
3. Introduction with some detail included 
2. Simple beginning paragraph 
1. Simple beginning sentence 
0. Missing a beginning/introduction 

Body: Organizes ideas J 

4, Three or more developed ideas; each idea organized into paragraphs; several 
transitional devices 

3. Three ideas each organized into a paragraph; some transitional devices 

2. More than one idea organized into a body paragraph 

1 . Ideas organized into sentences; ideas may be unorganized or difficult to follow at times; 
no paragraphs 

0. No organization of ideas; random words and/or phrases 

E*J Includes descriptive details | 


4. At least three descriptive details about each idea 
3. At least two descriptive details about each idea 
2. One detail about each idea; some are descriptive 
1 . Basic detail included about some ideas 
0. No details included 

First-person point of view] 

3. Uses consistently 
2. Uses most of the time 
1. Uses inconsistently 
0. Does not use at all 



4. Developed conclusion in paragraph form 

3. Conclusion with some detail included 

2. Simple ending paragraph 

1. Simple ending sentence 

0. Missing an ending/conclusion 

Early Developing: 

CProQua$t Information and Learning Company All rights reservad. 



Sample writing for assessment 


It was 27th May. I had invited some of my friends from Madurai to join our family 
picnic to Vandalur zoo. It was a very special occasion because my friends from Madurai 
visited my home for the first time. 

After visiting a part of bird's section, we got tired and hungry. A lot of people 
thronged the aquarium building. So, we decided to sit somewhere. I looked for a green 
and shady area. We walked through the footpath and reached a well maintained lawn. 
I spread the blanket. Mother opened the bags. I circulated the paper plates and kept 
water jug at the centre. I helped my mother serve variety rice and pickle to all my 
friends and family members. My grandfather narrated how my father played pranks and 
got punished in his school. Gopi was interested in eating bananas. Just then a monkey 
appeared and snatched a bunch from his hands. He tried to frighten it to return the 
bunch of bananas. But the monkey was smart. It climbed a nearby tree and started its 
sweet lunch. We had a hearty laugh. But Gopi was upset for quite sometime. I offered 
the only banana I had and consoled him. Now there was less crowd in the bird's section. 
We saw white peacocks and love birds. As clouds started gathering in the sky, a peacock 
started dancing spreading his beautiful feathers. We were a little scared when we heard 
the roar of a big lion from inside its huge cage. We were thrilled to see a large and 
handsome tiger walking slowly and proudly. We saw a group of spotted deer grazing 
quietly. Their horns were pretty too. 

Grandpa, being tired, was relaxing on the spread blanket. We returned to the gate 
of the zoo at 5 p.m. I did not expect the time to fly so fast. In the company of young 
friends, we forget worries and time also. We returned home by 8 p.m. Twenty seventh 
May turned out to be a very memorable day in my life. 


Name : Kumar 






What? Where? With whom? 

Summer picnic - Visit to Vandalur Zoo, Family & Friends 

— ^> 

1. Topic sentence 

find place to sit 


Topic sentence 

got hungry, 
time to eat 


3. Topic sentence 





Supporting details: 

* many people 

* walked through foot path 

* found a spot, spread blanket, opened 
all the bags, circulated paper plates. 

Supporting details 

* helped mother serve variety rice 

* grandpa told funny stories about dad 

* a monkey snatched bananas from Gopi 

Supporting details 

* bright coloured birds inside cage 

* large tiger - caged lion roared 

* Peacock danced 

* Spotted deer grazing 







Feeling or solution 

Packed up, walked home, best 27th of May 


Writing Qrl? Personal Narrative aaaa 


Instructions: Check each box as you read over your writing. 


My introduction shows details for who and what the story is about. 


The body is organized into paragraphs for each of the ideas (at least three). 

1 use at least three descriptive details to tell more about each idea. 

Each sentence is complete and makes sense. 


1 include some figurative language. 

1 use simple, compound, and complex sentences. 

9, 1 

1 use first-person point of view. 


My conclusion shows a feeling or solution and why the topic is memorable. 


Writing Orl? Personal Narrative aaaa 


Instructions: Check each box as you read over your writing. 

1 I 



My introduction shows details for who and what the story is about. 

The body is organized into paragraphs for each of the ideas {at least three). 

1 use at least three descriptive details to tell more about each idea. 

Each sentence is complete and makes sense. 

I include some figurative language. 

I use simple, compound, and complex sentences. 

I use first-person point of view. 

My conclusion shows a feeling or solution and why the topic is memorable. 

63 PrgGi>esi Information onc | [.gaining Company All reghn reserved, www.writinqa-z.corn 



It was 27th May. I had invited some of my friends from Madurai to j oin our family 
picnic to Vandalur zoo. It was a very special occasion because my friends from Madurai 
visited my home for the first time. 

After visiting a part of bird's section, we got tired and hungry. A lot of people 
thronged the aquarium building. So, we decided to sit somewhere. I looked for a green 
and shady area. We walked through the footpath and reached a well maintained lawn. I 
spread the blanket. Mother opened the bags. I circulated the paper plates and kept water 
jug at the centre. I helped my mother serve variety rice and pickle to all my friends and 
family members. My grandfather narrated how my father played pranks and got punished 
in his school. Gopi was interested in eating bananas. Just then a monkey appeared and 
snatched a bunch from his hands. He tried to frighten it to return the bunch of bananas. 
But the monkey was smart. It climbed a nearby tree and started its sweet lunch. We had 
a hearty laugh. But Gopi was upset for quite sometime. I offered the only banana I had 
and consoled him. Now there was less crowd in the bird's section. We saw white 
peacocks and love birds. As clouds started gathering in the sky, a peacock started dancing 
spreading his beautiful feathers. We were a little scared when we heard the roar of a big 
lion from inside its huge cage. We were thrilled to see a large and handsome tiger 
walking slowly and proudly. We saw a group of spotted deer grazing quietly. Their horns 
were pretty too. 

Grandpa, being tired, was relaxing on the spread blanket. We returned to the gate 
of the zoo at 5 p.m. I did not expect the time to fly so fast. In the company of young 
friends, we forget worries and time also. We returned home by 8 p.m. Twenty seventh 
May turned out to be a very memorable day in my life. 


Some Final Considerations 

Students need to know exactly what will be evaluated and how. Teachers should 
communicate their expectations or develop the expectations with the class, considering the 

• Teachers should not feel that they must mark everything but they should provide some 
kind of feedback for most of the students' writing. Using the folder/portfolio system, 
students should choose what they will submit for evaluation. Teachers set the minimum 
guidelines (e.g., five public compositions/three informal compositions/several journal 

• Teachers should communicate their assessment guidelines as well as the methods (e.g., 
holistic, analytic) very clearly at the beginning of the course to all concerned — students, 
parents, school administration. 

• Teachers should clearly communicate the mark allocation (e.g., the percentage assigned 
to each of product and process). For some assignments, students may have the option to 
weigh the process or product more heavily within a pre-determined range of marks. 

• Teachers must balance the marks assigned to writing with the other language strands. 

Growth in writing is slow and highly individualistic. Effective evaluation depends on 
teachers clearly understanding what students can do, assessing students' growth, and giving 
meaningful feedback and encouragement. 

C. Exploration 

Student-Teachers shall do projects on the following topics: 

• The relationship between handwriting and the personality of the writer. 

• The scope for teaching the range of skills from lining and sketching to self-expressive 
creative forms of writing. 





4. www.hwtears.eom/parents/pointers.html#practice. 

5 . 


7. Byrne, D. 1980. English teaching perspectives. Essex: Longman Group Limited. 
Cartledge, H. 1968. In defense of dictation. English Teaching Forum, 32, 3, pp. 

227-228 . 

8. Davis, P. and M. Rinvolucri. 1990. Dictation: New methods, new possibilities. New 
York: Cambridge University Press. 

9. Marcel, C. 1853. Language as a means of mental culture and international 
communication. Vol. II, London: Chapman and Hall. 


10. 24th November, 

11. Dictation - New methods, new possibilities, Paul Davis and Mario Rinvolucri, 
Cambridge University Press. 


1 3 . For interactive story mapping exercises, please use 
strategies/sm/activity 1 .htm 

14. Hare, V., & Bingham, A. (1986). Teaching students main idea comprehension: 
Alternatives to repeated exposures. In J. Baumann (Ed.), Teaching main idea 
comprehension (179-194). Newark, DE: International Reading Association. 

1 5 . "Handwriting in an Early Childhood Curriculum" by Linda Leonard. Lamme "Helping 
Hands: A World of Manipulatives to Boost Handwriting skills" by June M Naus 13. 

16. Santa, C. (1993). Pegasus: Teacher implementation guide for grade 4. Dubuque, Iowa: 
Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company. 

17. Measuring Growth in English, copyright 1974 by the National Council of Teachers 
of English. Diederich, 1974, p. 54. 

1 8 . 


20. "Tips For Teachers" Newsletter 2003 from Handwriting Without Tears at http:// 

21. "Handwriting Exercises" from Brain-based Activities for Young Learners by Ellen 
Booth Church at Otwebsite/Hendwriting_exercises.html 
last visited July 21, 2003. 

22. Handwriting in an Early Childhood Curriculum" by Linda Leonard Lamme Helping 
Hands: A World of Manipulatives to Boost Handwriting Skills by June M. Naus. 

23. Bowen, J. Donald. 1979. Contextualizing Pronunciation Practice in the ESOL 
Classroom. In Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language. Marianne Celce- 
Murcia and Lois Mcintosh. Eds. Rawley, MA: Newbury House Publishers, Inc. 

24. Raimes, Ann. 1983. Techniques in Teaching Writing. New York: Oxford University 

25 . http: www. A to Z 



3.1 Scope 

3.1.1 Points to ponder 

Following are some specific views on teaching grammar. Read them carefully and 
choose the one that you agree with: 

1. The acquisition of the grammatical system of a language remains a most important 
element in language learning. Grammar is the means through which linguistic 
creativity is ultimately achieved and inadequate knowledge of the grammar would 
lead to serious limitations on the creativity for communication. - Wilkins 

2. Systematic attention to grammar is neither necessary nor sufficient for learning to 
use a language. That it is not necessary is demonstrated by the native speaker's 
success without it, that it is not sufficient is seen in a second language learner's 
lack of success with it. - Newmark 

3. The grammar book and the grammar curriculum are like the luggage of an unskilled 
camper, who does not know where he is going or what he is going to do there, so he 
has tumbled into the bag all sorts of useless articles. . . - Michael West 

If you happen to be a staunch believer in grammar, you might have disagreed with the 
last two statements and gone by the first statement. However, there seems to be some truth 
in what Newmark and Michael West say. Most often learners feel burdened by the grammar 
they learn, and are unable to use it. It is also puzzling how native illiterate speakers manage 
to speak grammatically, without learning any grammar whatsoever, whereas in Indian learning 
situation second language learners are unable to communicate in English even after ten to 
twelve years of drilling in grammar. 

In this unit, our major aim is to find answers to the following questions: 

> What is grammar? 

> Should we teach grammar? 

> What grammar should we teach? 

> What is the place of grammar in school curriculum? 

> How should we teach grammar? 

3.2 Objectives of Teaching Grammar: 


The ability to use a language effectively depends primarily on one's knowledge of the 
underlying 'rules' that govern the uses of the language, Thus, if you are able to understand 
the meaning of something which is said to you in English or of something which you read, 
it is because you know something of the 'rules' of English. 



If some of your students make the following statements (say / write), do you find all is 
well or do you find any mistake in them? 

1 . Do you know what is this? 

2. He is speak English fluently. 

3. She ran fastly. 

4. Mary is loving me very much. 

5 . I have no money. 

Does your knowledge of the rules enable you to identify the mistakes committed and the 
category of errors? 

You can get at the correct message of each statement, provided you have the knowledge 
of the rules. It is clear, therefore, that one of the important aims of language teaching is to 
give the learner a knowledge of the code or the underlying rules of the language. This brings 
us to the teaching of grammar. 

The word 'grammar' usually reminds us of those tiresome, unappetizing periods in the 
school time-table when we were forced to memorize rules and paradigms. Since most pupils 
have very little use for this kind of grammar (none other than scoring some marks in the 
examinations) it is rapidly forgotten. Even most teachers, unsure of their knowledge of 
'grammar', feel reluctant to teach it. 

3.3.1 What is grammar? 

All of us have a vague notion about grammar. This is because the word 'grammar' is 
interpreted in different ways by different people. Let us look briefly at three such 
interpretations and call them G v G 2 and G y 

1. Grammar 1 or G t : 

Grammar is the total mechanism which a language possesses and through which its 
users are able to communicate with each other. 

• Every native speaker of a language - literate or illiterate is aware of the total 
mechanism of the language which enables him to communicate with others. This 
awareness is intuitive. 

2. Grammar 2 or G 2 : 

Grammar refers to the formal analysis and description of the rules of the language. 
This is known as descriptive grammar. 

3. Grammar 3 or G3: 

Grammar refers also to the rules for the correct use of a language which may be 
prescribed for its users. 

• A grammar of this kind produced by Nesfield or Wren and Martin consists largely 
of rules which a learner is expected to master. For example, the verb should agree 
with the subject noun. The question is - which grammar is the teacher expected to 
teach - G , or G 2 or G 3 ? Every teacher of English must ultimately teach the G ; of 


English since this is what enables a student to use the language. However, we, as 
teachers of English follow the G 2 (The Descriptive Grammar) or the G 3 (The 
prescriptive Grammar or Formal Grammar). But does the teaching of G 2 or G 3 help 
the student in learning G t ? 

The Indian situation seems to provide a ready answer to that question. Many of our 
students know a lot of G 2 or G 3 (this, at least, is what their marks in the school examination 
indicate), but they can neither speak nor write correctly. The inference is that their G ; is 

On the other hand, a student can certainly be made proficient in G ; without any 
experience to G 2 or G 3 . This is what happens in the case of native speakers, and could happen 
with a student who is able to learn in the same way as a native speaker, that is, through 
constant exposure to the language. 

If the teaching of G 2 or G 3 does not ensure the learning of G ; and thereby assisting the 
learner to communicate in English, why is it taught at all? Infact, the reaction against the 
teaching of G 2 and G 3 has gone to that extreme that teachers are cautioned that they should 
"teach the language not about the language". 

As a result, a new approach to grammar teaching has come in where greater emphasis 
has been laid to the practice or use of language in meaningful, easy, real life situations 
wherein the following techniques are employed: oral drilling, pattern - practice, substitution 
exercises, etc. The student is systematically exposed to G ; (The Functional Grammar) by 
the teacher and he absorbs as much of it as he can. 

At the initial stages of learning, there is no attempt to make the student think 
consciously about language or to provide explanations of any kind. Formal Grammar (G 2 ) is 
excluded, as it is believed that explanations will confuse the young learner who does not 
possess the maturity to benefit from them. 

But after some years of learning, when the learner has gained sufficient mastery over 
Gj, it is felt that he may be exposed to some Formal Grammar (G 2 ), as this helps to 
systematize and consolidate what he has already known from G r 

Should we teach grammar? 

Discuss with your teacher or debate it out with your peers 

We need to teach grammar since our learners can never have the exposure that native 
speakers have. However, the teaching of G 3 does not seem to help much. So far our approach 
has been as follows: 

Present the rules of grammar — > provide practice through drills and exercises. 

— > apply this knowledge while communicating 

Now, many experts feel that it may be worthwhile adopting the following approach to 
the teaching of grammar. 


Present genuine communication — > elicit relevant rules. 

— > provide practice in communication. 

Here are two sets of grammar tasks. Go through them carefully and say which one you 
prefer and why. 


A 1 . Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with suitable prepositions: 

a) The results would be published Monday. 

b) We returned Chennai yesterday. 

c) A man is standing the tree. 

2. Change the verbs in the following sentences into the future tense. 

a) You are a teacher. 

b) You earn a lot of money. 

c) You become very famous. 

B. Divide the students into groups. One of them is the fortune - teller. Others go to him/her one by 
one and asks questions. The fortune - teller answers their questions. 
For example: 

Ql: What will I become? Al: You will be a teacher. 

Q2: How much will I earn? A2: You will earn a lot of money. 
Q3: Will I become famous? A3: Yes, you will become very famous. 

3.3.2 Types of Grammar 

Nobody would dispute that the teaching of grammar is as important as the teaching of 
reading, writing or any other skill. But we know how to teach all other skills. Traditional 
approaches to language teaching had a strong influence on the teaching of grammar also. 
For example, in the Grammar Translation Method, the sentence formed the basis of language 
teaching. The learner was deliberately exposed to and taught the rules of English grammar 
one by one till he shaped his language accordingly. Such grammar is prescriptive in nature 
i.e. they tell us how to write and use the language and not how people use it in actual life. 

There is another kind of grammar developed by Wilkins that concentrates not on the 
rules of forming correct sentences but on expressing the different notions and functions 
through appropriate grammatical structures. This grammar is called 'the functional grammar' . 

i. Formal Grammar: 

•$■ This grammar consists of elaborate rules, definitions and the structure of the language. 

It deals mainly with the physical form of words, word endings, word groups and sentences 

and not their total meaning as a piece of communication. 
■$■ This grammar classifies words into parts of speech and sentences. It further divides 

them as kinds of nouns, adjectives, verbs, etc and gives us many rules on sentences and 

transformation of sentences. 
•$■ Here reading and writing are the basic skills considered essential because, it is only 

through these skills language is preserved in its pure and standard form. Spoken English 

is largely ignored. 


-y- It is also called 'Prescriptive Grammar'. Teaching and learning had to follow 
prescriptivism for about a century. The rules that were applied to English were directly 
taken from Latin and Greek and imposed on the language. The whole focus is on 

•$■ In this type of grammar, there are sets of rules. Any departure from those rules is not 
allowed. Here the grammarians forgot that language is ever changing and ever growing. 

•$■ The students first of all learn the rules for the formation of tenses, words, etc. They 
learn everything else afterwards. In our schools, for a long time, this grammar was 
taught as a separate subject dealing with elements of language and neglecting their 
functions in communication. 

ii. Functional Grammar: 

-y- It is also called the 'Incidental Grammar' . This type of grammar is learnt by the students 
quite unconsciously while learning the language. Here language learning is the first 
concern of the learners and knowing the rules and regulations comes next. 

-Y- Here the focus is on appropriate utterances rather than on grammatical sentences. For 
instance, for learning 'how to seek permission' students will have to learn the various 
grammatical forms that can be used to do this: 

Can I use your phone, please? 

May I use your phone, please? 

Could I use your phone? 

I wonder if I can use your phone? 

I wondered if I could use your phone? 

Do you mind if I use your phone? 

Would you mind my using your phone? 

-Y- The above utterances are questions, which begin either with a modal, or an auxiliary, or 
which contains an if clause to achieve one function: seeking permission. Similarly a 
single grammatical form can be used to achieve different functions as in the following: 
(functions are given in parentheses) 

• Bake the cake in a slow oven, (instruction) 

• Come for dinner tomorrow, (invitation) 

• Take up this work, (advance / offer) 

• Pardon me please! (prayer) 

All the above sentences are imperative, but they are used to serve different functions. 
The functional grammar does not focus so much on the form as the different functions 
the grammatical forms aim to do. 

-y* This type of grammar takes into account the fact that language is growing and changing 
from time to time. Here the rules of language are set but change in those rules is allowed. 

-y- It deals with the ability to use the language grammatically i.e. acceptable form of words, 
pattern of phrases, sentences, sounds, stress, rhythm, intonation, etc. It is the grammar 
in operation. 


3.3.3 How are the two types of grammar different? 

-Y- Formal grammar is the ability to describe the language whereas functional grammar is 
the ability to use the language. 

-y- The second type (i.e. the functional grammar) is better because it helps the learners in 
the achievement of real aims of language learning. So it is recommended for teaching 
purpose in the schools. 

-Y- All children learn functional grammar when they are learning to speak their mother- 
tongue. They have a very high degree of control over functional grammar before they 
even go to school. It is only in school where we find formal grammar is taught and used. 

*$* The fact that people learn their mother-tongue without learning formal grammar is now 
being applied to the learning of second language. 

-v- A learner can learn a new language without learning formal grammar first. 

3.3.4 Place of Grammar in School Curriculum 

Certainly today we cannot do without grammar. As Wilkins observes, "The acquisition 
of the grammatical system of a language remains the most important element in language 
learning. A notional syllabus no less than a grammatical syllabus must seek to ensure that 
grammatical system is properly assimilated by the learner". 

Without a knowledge of grammar of the language, one's learning of the language is 
inadequate. Conscious learning of grammar is slowly converted into an automatic process. 
This grammar must be taught. 

3.3.5 Expected Role of Grammar 

-y- The expected role of grammar is that it should assist in learning the language. 

•♦- It should be a means to achieve the goal. The goal is to learn the language. It should not 

be allowed to become an end in itself. 
-y- At the early stages of language learning the children should be enabled to learn the 

language straight way. 
-y- They should be given practice in listening, speaking, reading and writing. A good deal of 

practice is needed for every learner. 
•$■ Let the child learn the language in a natural way. At the initial stages, the study of grammar 

need not be imposed. 
-y- Grammar should be introduced after two or three years of learning the language. By that 

time, the learner can use grammar as a tool 

3.3.6 Contents of Grammar Curriculum in Schools 

Chapman has rightly opined, "The essential features of English which pupils must be 
acquainted with are: word order, tense formation, sentence joints, the fixed nature of idioms 
and flexibility". 

•$* During the first year of grammar teaching only functions of words and the way they are 

used should be taught. 
-♦■ During the second year and third year, sentence patterns, phrase patterns, structural 

words and the ways in which English uses a few inflexions should be taught. 


-y- At the senior stage these should be coupled with analysis, synthesis, direct and indirect 
narration, transformation, compound and difficult sentences. 

3.3.7 School Grammar Curriculum Focuses on 

1 . Identification and recall of parts of speech on the basis of their forms and functions in 
an utterance. 

2. Knowledge of tenses and modals. 

3. Knowledge of non- finites, infinitives, gerunds and participles. 

4. Identification of different kinds of phrases and clauses (conditional, relative, coordinate, 


5. Recognition of parts of a sentence - subject, predicate, modifier, object, complement, 

6. Knowledge of different kinds of sentences - simple, compound and complex. 

7. Ability to analyse, transform and synthesize sentences. 

8. Knowledge of punctuation. 

3.3.8 How much grammar is taught in primary classes? 

The body of grammatical facts appropriate to the primary school is limited. It might 
be summed up as follows :- 

1. A knowledge of the sentence structure sufficient to analyze and parse it down to its 
individual words. 

2. A knowledge of all the common inflections as they appear in nouns, pronouns, 
adjectives, verbs and adverbs. 

3. The various kinds of nouns, pronouns, adjectives, adverbs and conjunctions. 

4. The simple rules of syntax. Functional grammar syllabus for 3 rd Std. English. 

3.3.9 The Objectives of Teaching Grammar 

The main objectives of teaching grammar are enumerated as follows: 

1 . To develop students' insight into the structure of English language. 

2. To enable the students to assimilate the correct patterns of the language without rote 

3 . To teach grammar as a rule - governed behaviour. 

4. To develop the mental abilities of reasoning and correct observation. 

5. To develop a scientific attitude in pupils towards the language. 

3.3.10 Principles of Teaching Grammar 

The following principles should be adhered to while teaching grammar: 

1. In the initial stages, a separate grammar book need not be introduced. Let the pupils 
unconsciously absorb grammatical items as contained in the reader. 

2. Grammar should not begin on abstract lines and abstract principles which pupils may 
not understand. 


3. Grammar points should begin with language. It must correlate speech, in which a 
sentence is a unitary whole with reading. After the students have listened to it, try to 
guide them to deduce the pattern which we want them to use. 

4. Try to teach grammar and usage simultaneously with their own examples and make 
them listen to as many usages as possible. 

5. Attention should be paid to the meaning of the structure rather than to its grammatical 

6. Grammar should not be taught as an intellectual exercise; its aim is to make pupils 
skilful users of the language. So they should be taught to use the structures of English 
correctly rather than just label them. 

3.3.11 Some Principles for Grammar Teaching in Schools 

Any approach to grammar in the English classroom should: 

•$■ Acknowledge and build on what the children already know. 

• This will involve real familiarities with work undertaken at lower classes for higher 
class study. Always seek to make a link with something already known at the start of 
the topic so that the pupils have something to relate it to and are more likely to 
absorb new information. 

-y- Involve children in exploration and investigation. 

• Don't just tell them what they will find. Let them find out for themselves. 
-y- Be descriptive and not prescriptive . 

• Focus on effectiveness rather than on simple 'correctness' . Correct use of language 
is the usage of an educated, adult user of that language. 

-Y- Encourage interest in all forms of language. 

• Set a tone of interest and curiosity which accords respect to different ways of 
expressing ideas. 

■y* Focus on the functions of grammar in actual texts. 

• Try not to invent examples; concentrate on what a grammatical device achieves in 
the text. Collect samples of text. Encourage pupils to bring in different types of 
text samples of real language use. 

-Y- Be explicitly related to children's own reading and writing. 

• Make links between what you happen to be reading and the work already done. 


Develop a scheme of work on grammar 

This task will give you the chance to plan a sequence of lessons. You could apply the 
principles given above and build on a few grammar lessons for the class you are teaching. 

a) Devise some activities for motivation. 

b) Plan a sequence of two or three lessons on any topic from primary class grammar. 

c) Show your scheme of work (lesson plan) to your teacher. 

d) Teach the lessons and evaluate your success. 


3.3.12 The Environment of an English Classroom. 

The environment of an English classroom needs to be conducive to the exploration of 
grammar and study of words and meanings. All teachers of English need to consider what 
this will involve and decide how they can adapt their surroundings, attitudes and teaching 
methods / styles to achieve it. A 'language-rich' classroom should provide 

• varied and challenging opportunities to use language; 

• many opportunities to reflect on and talk about language; 

• easy access to a wide range of resources: short stories, poems, comics, riddles, 
newspapers, pictures, television, motion pictures, Internet and pupils' own writing on 

In a 'language-rich classroom' the pupils and the teacher will 

• show real enthusiasm for learning; 

• use their knowledge of language from home and the media; 

• show concern for effectiveness and appropriateness; 

• make comparisons between texts. 


Furnishing richer class room climate 

The purpose of this task is to reflect on what opportunities can be provided for language 
use in the classroom environment. Reflect on the items you provide in your classroom 
or in a classroom you have observed. 

1 . Can you add anything to the list of opportunities ? 

2. List three things which could provide your classroom a richer environment. 

3.3.13 Methods of Teaching Grammar 

The introduction of the Direct method of teaching English and the later innovations, 
in spite of their permissive approach, did not undermine the necessity of grammar. A language 
has to be grammatically correct; there cannot be two opinions about it. What these new 
methods, however, did was that they changed the conventional concepts of teaching grammar 
and offered a simplified and interesting procedure of teaching grammar. 

i. Deductive Method of teaching grammar: 

• This method may be used with older children who have already learnt some language. 

• This method insists on grammar-based language learning. 

• The motto is : Grammar first, Language next. 

• Examples flow down from universal rules. 

• The approach is : general to particular 

• The teacher states the rules which are illustrated by examples. 

• Wren and Martin and Nesfield are proponents of this type of teaching grammar. 

The procedure 

1. Presentation of rule. 

2. Illustration with examples. 


3. Verification and application of rule. 

4. Practice. 

A classroom reference: 



The teacher presents the rules or definition of a language form 
- for example - the present continuous tense.He defines : The 
present continuous tense is used for describing actions that are 
going on at the moment of speaking. 



The teacher gives a number of examples making use of class 
room situations, pictures or actions. 

I am speaking 

I am writing 

I am walking 

He is running 

She is drawing. 


Verification and 
application of rule 

The teacher explains how the rule / definition applies to various 
situations/examples. He makes the students learn the rule from 



He elicits examples from the students by showing some more 
pictures or giving some exercises. He gives them enough practice 
to use the correct form of verb. Care is taken to maintain 
agreement between the subject and the verb and also the spelling 
of ' ing' words. 

Critical evaluation: 

The advocates of this type of grammar teaching say: 

i. It fixes in the pupil's mind a standard of accurate usage. 
ii. It fortifies him against the influence of bad examples, 
iii. It helps him to make usages which are correct, certain, rapid and intelligent. 

The critics of this grammar, on the other hand, are very sceptic about its utility: 
i. It ignores 'oral aspects' of the language, 
ii. It is teacher-dominated and not child - centred, 
iii. It does not provide anything for free thought and expression, 
iv. It is uninteresting and creates a monotonous situation in the classroom, 
v. Great scholars like Goethe learnt language through practice "without rule and without 

ii. Inductive Method of teaching grammar: 

One way of teaching grammar is that examples are given to the students. Out of the 
examples the rules are formulated. This method is called inductive method. It is the method 
of formulating a generalization with the help of a sufficient number of concrete examples / 


The procedure 

1. Presentation of examples. 

2. Analysis of examples. 

3. Generalization. 

4. Application and practice. 

Classroom Reference: 

1. Presentation of examples 

The teacher gives examples and illustrations in a systematic order so they may arrive 

at a common understanding or a hypothetical generalization. 


I used to play football at school (Now I no longer play the game) 

Ravi used to bathe in cold water. (Now he bathes in hot water) 

My sister used to write well. (Now she doesn't) 

2. Analysis of examples 

The teacher writes some more examples on the blackboard. 
Madurai used to get good rains but now it doesn't. 
He used to be very funny but he isn't now. 

The teacher illustrates and explains that we use 'used to' to express a past habit. He 
cautions the students against using it to express a present habit or practice. 

3. Generalization: 

The teacher helps the students to frame the rule, from all the examples, that 'used to' 
expresses a past habit. 

Rule : 'used to' occurs only in the past tense. It expresses a state or habit in the past as 
contrasted with the present. 

We usually use the simple present tense to talk about present habits. 

Example : I used to play tennis. These days I play cricket. 

4. Application and Practice: 

The teacher asks the students to learn the examples first and then the rule. He elicits 
some more examples from them. 


Fill in the blanks using 'Used to' / present simple verb where necessary. 

1. I cricket. I stopped playing it a few years ago. 

2. My brother used to walk any distance. Now he a scooter. 

3. My grandmother tell us stories. Now she is too old to do that. 

Critical Evaluation: 

• The Inductive Method makes the pupils think and take active part in language learning. 

• Teaching and learning are made interesting through contextualized activities. 

• Children learn grammar incidentally as it involves a lot of practice and active participation. 


Choice of Method: 

• A good teacher of grammar should be eclectic. He should have his own approach based 
on a synthesis of the insights he has acquired from his study of different approaches to 
the teaching of grammar. 

• He need not accept any one method in totality. He should select what is best suited for his 
purpose in the classroom. 

• He should explain and describe grammatical aspects. He should illustrate them with 

• He should have a definite plan for classroom transaction and abide by it. 

3.3.14 The Organization of Grammar Teaching 

Any grammar class with a learner- friendly procedure can be successful only when the 
teacher is highly committed and involved. Steps involved in grammar teaching are: 
i. Presentation 
ii. Isolation and explanation 
iii. Practice 
iv. Evaluation 

i. Presentation: 

We usually begin by presenting the class with a text in which the grammatical structure or 

item appears. 

The aim of presentation is to help the learners perceive the structure - its form and 

meaning in both speech and writing - and keep it in their memory. 

Often a story or short dialogue is used which appears in the written form in the text book 

and is also read aloud by the teacher. 

As a follow-up, students are allowed to read aloud, repeat or reproduce from memory or 

copy out instances of the use of the structure / grammar item found in the text. 

When the grammar item is very simple and an easily perceived one, 'the presentation 

text' can be a sentence or two which may as a model for immediate practice. 

ii. Isolation and Exploration 

At this stage we move away from the context and focus on the grammatical items 

themselves - what they mean, how they function what rules govern them etc. 

The objective is that learners should understand the various aspects of the grammatical 


If situation warrants, in some instances we may need to make extensive use of the students' 

native language to explain, make comparisons and generalizations. 

iii. Practice 

The practice stage consists of a series of exercises done both in the classroom and as 

home assignments. 

Its aim is to make the learners absorb the grammatical item thoroughly. 

Here we use a series of varied exercises which will complement each other and provide 

a thorough understanding. 


iv. Evaluation 

• Learners here undergo some evaluation tests to demonstrate to themselves and to the 
teacher how well they have mastered the material they have been learning. 

• The main objective of this testing within a classroom course is to provide feedback without 
which neither the teacher nor the learner would be able to progress. 

3.3.15 Grammar learning a palatable exercise? 

(Some suggested techniques to teach grammar) 

Teaching grammar (English) is not simply a question of handing out clear, linguistic 
information to the learners. If this were the case, teaching language would be an easier job. 
Somehow, you, the teacher, have to induce, attract and persuade your students to a joyful 
learning of language/ grammar items. This section provides you with some of the practical 
ways of inducing your students to English grammar learning. It suggests some interesting, 
game-like or communicative practice techniques that can be used to supplement those 
provided by regular course books. 

1. Tasks 

2. Games 

3. Activities 

4. Story-telling 

5. Cloze exercises 

6. Dramatization and role play 

7. Pictures 

8. Dialogues 

9. Situations 

10. Demonstration 

1 1 . Description / narration 

12. Drills 


• Tasks are 

i. Language-based ('Give me some examples of 'yes / no' questions') 

ii. Non-linguistic ('Guess what I am thinking of) 

• The function the tasks do: 

Activate the learners in such a way as to get them engaged to the grammar item to be 

• Essential Characteristics : 

i. Clear objectives - using the grammar item. 

ii. Active language use - provision for repeated exposure and practice. 


Task 1: Recipes 

Use of the imperative to give instructions 


• Tell the class to write out instructions for a simple recipe, 
e.g. Making a cup of tea. 

Supply new vocabulary if need arises. 

Check that all participants understand the task and method. 

Give instruction on how to 

1 boil an egg. 

2 to make a cup of tea. 

3 to make a paper boat. 

4 to prepare a lemonade. 

5 to make an omelette. 

Task 2: 

Describing Pictures 

Objective : 

Use of is /are or there is /there are to describe a scene. 

Materials : 

Large pictures that can be easily seen by all the class, preferably in colour and with 
plenty of details or individual smaller copies of the same to individual students. 


1. Invite the students to say as much as they can about the picture, using '(There) is or 
(There) are' . 

2. Set a definite target: 10 sentences in 2 minutes 

3 . As a motivation / preparatory exercise display the picture for two minutes, then hide it 
and ask students to recall its content. 


Pictures to be described: 


Most learners find that learning a foreign language like English is different from that 
of their mother-tongue. What is still more difficult is that the grammar of the new language 
is spectacularly different from the way the mother- tongue works. Learning English grammar 


can be made enjoyable if you provide students with a game - like situation wherein they can 
feel, think, act and finally produce the grammar you want them to achieve through other non 
- interesting, mechanical exercises and drills. 

Game-1: Real time 


Language for telling the time. 


20-40 minutes. 


Twelve chairs 


1 . Arrange a circle of twelve chairs, with uniform gaps between the chairs. Place a material 
on one of them to represent twelve o' clock. 

2. Let the students stand around outside the circle. Ask for two volunteers to go into the 

3. Compare the heights of the two students; the taller one becomes the 'long hand' and 
the shorter the 'small hand' . 

4. The volunteers then sit down on two different chairs indicating time on the clock. 
They (or you) ask 'what's the time?' Students outside the circle shout out the answer. 

5 . Continue changing the students inside the circle until you are satisfied with the students' 
time-telling and pronunciation. 

6. Practice this until the students are able to identify the time by hours. 
Game-2 : I Challenge 


Word endings and suffixes. 


25 minutes. 





To avoid completing a word yourself and cause someone else into completing it. 


1. Ask a student to call out a letter. It should be the first letter of a word he\she can 
visualize. Write the letter on the board. 

2. Ask the student next to him to call out a letter. Write it next to the first one. Continue 
with the next student in line and so on. 

3. The student whose turn it is can call out T challenge' instead of a letter. A challenge can 
be because no possible addition of a letter / letters will make an English word. 

If the student who provided the last letter can suggest a word, the challenge is defeated. 
The round is over. 

4. The other grounds for a challenge is that letters on the board already make a word. This 
challenge can be defeated if the student who is being challenged can make a longer 
word which he says out loud. The round is over. Start a new sequence. 

5. After a few word exercises done round, the exercise can be done by the students in 
small groups. 


Challenge 1 : The first five students produce 'butto' . The next student challenges but can 
be defeated by student 5 suggesting 'button' . 

Challenge 2 : The first four students produce 'free' . The next student can challenge because 
this is a complete word. Student 4 can defeat the challenge by saying 'freed', 
'freedom', etc. 


This game concentrates students' attention on word endings -s, -ed, -ing, -er etc. and word 

3. Activities 

Herein, you will find some samples of short, easily prepared activities to supplement 
the longer teaching procedures on grammar. You may need these activities for 


• a quick warm - up for the beginning to get your students into the right mood for learning. 

• a brief review before starting a new text. 

• a relief - a light filler - after a period of intense transaction. 

• a game or amusing item to round off the lesson. 

Activity- 1: Expanding texts 


Forming grammatical sentences by adding words or phrases 


Write a single simple verb in the centre of the board. Invite students one, two or three 
words to it. eg. Go - I go - I go to bed. 

They go on suggesting additions of a maximum of three consecutive words each time, 
making the text longer and longer. 

They can add only at the beginning or end of what is already written. 

Add or change punctuation each time as appropriate. 


> Go to school. 

> "Go to school" said I. 

> "Go to school" said I to my child. 

> "Go to school" said I to my child firmly. 

> "You must go to school,"said I to my child firmly. 

> "Sam, you must go to school", said I to my child firmly. 

> "Now Sam, you must go to school," said I to my child firmly, but kindly. 

Activity-2: My neighbour's cat 


Review of adjectives. 

Draw a cat on the board 

• Introduce it as your neighbour's cat. Say, "My neighbour's 
cat is an awful cat". 

• Write the word 'awful' on the board. 

• Write all the letters of the alphabet under the 'a' of awful. 


Ask the students to say what they can about the neighbour's cat. 

They can offer their ideas in any order they like. 

As the ideas are suggested, write the adjectives next to the appropriate letters. 


Student A 
Student B 

My neighbour's cat is an awful cat. 
My neighbour's cat is an ugly cat. 
My neighbour's cat is a beautiful cat. 

My neighbour's cat 

Awful, active, angry .... 

Beautiful, bad, big, black 

Clever, careful, careless, cool 

Dirty, dark, dear, different 

Easy, excellent, energetic 

Famous, fat, funny, fine 

Good, greedy, grey, green 

Happy, hungry, heavy, honest 

Ill, interesting, intelligent, innocent 

Joyful, jolly, jealous .... 

Kind, keen, kindly, knowledge 

















Task:l Starter Activities 

Starter activities are designed as a 'warm-up' to the main lesson. Plan a starter 
which involves the whole class in learning a grammar point. 



Story Telling 

Develop creativity and question - answer skill. 

1. Divide the class into 5 or 6 groups. 

2. The teacher initiates story telling 

3. The groups one by one ask questions to get the story developed to a final conclusion. 

4. Once a story is completed, the leader of a group goes for a fresh story. 

5. Children love to play this game as they get enthused in creating new stories. 


I was walking in a garden one day. 

What was in the garden? 

A house. 

What was in the house? 

A kitchen. 

What was in the kitchen? 

A refrigerator. 

What was in the refrigerator? 

An apple. 

What happened to the apple? 

The child, there, ate it. 

Begin a story 
First group 
Second group 
Third group 
Fourth group 
Fifth group 

3.4 Exploration 

Task-1: Functional Grammar in School Curriculum. 

Examine the functional grammar syllabus for the class 3 learner. Which 
grammar items are given most curriculum space, Why? 



Examine the functional grammar syllabus for the class 3 learner. The use of a 
structure is effectively learnt if it is presented with the help of meaningful 
situations. Situations can be created with the help of pictures, flash cards, 
actions, gestures, drawings and verbal contexts. 

Following is a verbal situation by which efforts are made to teach the use of 
present continuous tense and simple present tense. 

Devise some more verbal situations to teach the same. 


Amarnath is a fisherman. He goes out into the sea for fishing every morning. Today is 
Sunday. He does not go for fishing. He is in church. He is praying. 


1 . Who is Amarnath? 

2. What does he do every morning? 

3. Does he go out for fishing every day? 

4. What is today? 

5. Where is he now? 

6. What is he doing? 

Situation 1: 

Mr John is a teacher. 

He teaches English. Now he is in the staff -room. 

He is reading a newspaper. 

Situation 2: 

Situation 3: 



1 . Saraswathi, V., English Language Teaching, Principles and Practice, Orient Longman 
Private Limited (2004). 

2. Sachdeva, M. S., Teaching of English in India, Tandon Publications (2003) 

3. Ram Nath Sharma, Contemporary English Teaching, Surjeeth Publication (2005). 

4. Sachdeva, M. S., ANew Approach to Teaching of English in India, Tandon Publications 

5. Satish, C. Chadha, Art and Science of Teaching English, Surya Publication (2004). 

6. Marlon Ediger, B. S., Venkata Dutt, D. and Bhaskara Rao, Discovery Publishing House 


7. Penny Ur, Grammar Practice Activities, A Practical Guide for Teachers, Cambridge 
University Press (2006). 

8. Maria Rinvolucri and Paul Davis, More Grammar Games, Cambridge University Press 


9. Jackie Silberg, 500 Five Minute Games, Viva Books Private Limited (2008). 



4.1 Scope 

Setting the scene: 

Think of the composition classes you have been teaching or have attended and answer 
the questionnaire on teaching composition. 

1 . Rank the role of the four basic language skills in your curriculum. 
(1 - most important; 4 least important) 

Listening D Speaking D 

Reading D Writing D 

2. How relevant and useful are your composition classes and exercises to the students? 
Very Useful D To some extent useful D 

Mechanical O Useless D 

3. What is the learners' attitude to composition writing? 


They enjoy 


to the 





R.ank the preferences 

following languag 


Letter writing 


Precise writing 


Developing Hints 

Dialogue writing 

5. Is there an improvement in the learners' writing skills as a result of composition 




b. Give reasons for your response. 

c. Suggest measures for improving the writing skills of students through composition 


Points to ponder 










Most English curricula in India, at any level, prefer examinations through 
the medium of writing alone. Learners write examinations at the end of the 
year or term tests. 

But the language practice of teaching throughout the year fails to give them 
adequate training in the written skill. 

Learners spend the whole year listening to the teacher's exposition of the 
text. There is only one period for composition every week and even that 
too is often converted into a prose or poetry class. 

Though writing happens to be the most important skill as far as the 
examination is concerned, it is given a raw deal in the classroom. 

There are many occasions when learners have to use written English in real 
life as in filling in money order forms, bank challans and reservation forms, 
sending telegrams, furnishing details in application forms, curriculum vitae, 
etc. but the syllabus for writing composition continues to be stereotyped 
even at this Information Marvelling Period by including hardly anything 
besides letters, precis and essays. 

As a consequence of this tiring and mechanical language study, learners 
naturally either hate composition classes or try to skip them for they do not 
have any relevance to real-life situations or needs. Hence there is hardly any 
improvement in their writing skills over the years. 

In this unit we shall make efforts to analyse the following topics and suggest 
fresh initiatives. 

i) Aims and objectives of teaching composition. 

ii) Oral and written composition 

iii) Controlled and guided composition. 

iv) Free composition 

v) Expansion Exercises 

vi) Correcting composition exercises. 

vii) Developing creative competency. 

viii) Developing strategic competency. 


The Process of Writing 

The process of writing has four stages; 

> Structuring 

> Copying 

> Transcribing 

> Composition. 

i. Structuring - Teaching the child how to write the letters of the alphabet, 
ii. Copying - Copying the passages or materials from the textbooks, 

iii. Transcribing - The practice of writing the text materials without the help of the 

iv. Composition - Advanced stage of learning to write on some topics of interest in a 

systematic way. 

Characteristics of a Composition 

• It is the expression of a child's thoughts, ideas, feelings and observations. 

• It includes both the process and product of composing. 

• It refers to the process of collecting thoughts, arranging them in a proper sequence and 
expressing them in a recognized form. 

• The product may take the shape of a letter, a paragraph, a description, a story, etc. 

Main aim of a composition 

The main aim is to communicate one's thoughts in an organized way. 

Objectives of Teaching Composition 

1 . To encourage the students to express their ideas in writing in an orderly and systematic 

2. To communicate information that could be followed readily by the reader. 

3. To enable the students arrange their ideas in writing at a reasonable speed and with 

4. To enable them recall appropriate vocabulary and use it in sentences. 

5. To help them make use of appropriate punctuation marks for clarity of ideas. 

6. To enable them fix the structures and vocabulary already learnt by them orally. 

7. To develop among the students communicative competence through writing. 

Why should composition be taught? 

• It helps the students to express themselves freely. Everyone is keen to give an outlet to 
his feelings and observations. That desire for self-expression is satisfied. 

• It enables a person to develop thinking and planning before writing. 

• The process of oral practice before written exercise helps the students to be precise and 

• It develops extensive thinking and creative imagination. 

• It promotes various writing skills - describing, narrating, summarizing etc. 

• Writing skills, developed through composition, are helpful in pursuing higher education 
and prospective careers. 


The basic requirements for successful composition writing 

1. Promotion of effective expression 

> The most pressing duty of the teacher is to help his pupils develop an effective 
mode of expression. 

2. Necessity of copying 

> Copying is a necessary phase of the early stages of learning as it develops fluency 
in the mechanics of writing. 

> An original composition can be developed by modifying a set of sentences copied 
from the black board and applied to the student's situations. 

Sams Routin 

Sam always gets up at 6.30. 

He drinks a glass of water. 

He goes for a walk in the ground. 

He takes a bath and has his breakfast. 

He often eats dosa. 

A Student may adapt this as follows 

My routine 

ij€> & ^j 

I am Sam. I always get up at 6.30. 

I drink a tumbler of water. 

I go for a walk in my garden. 

I bathe before I take my breakfast. 

I often eat idlies. 




fiti ftt r+ T -^J% 

a O tJ a"i 1[ 


3. Preparation for composition: 

The teacher who wishes the whole class to write a composition on a particular subject 
must prepare them in the following ways. 

i. He must satisfy himself that all his students have enough ideas on the proposed 
subject. It forms the basis of a successful piece of writing. 

ii. He must also be sure that they have the required linguistic competence - vocabulary 
and sentence patterns - for conveying their thoughts on the given topic. 

Principles of Composition 

1. Principle of proper selection: 

Only such topics which are of interest and familiarity should be selected for 

2. Principle of gradation: 

Selection of topics should be in accordance with the age, ability and class level of 

3. Principle of oral practice: 

Oral practice on the subject matter should be given before asking them to write anything. 
This will reduce the mistakes in writing. 

4. Principle of sequence: 

Sentences on the given topic should be arranged coherently and have meaningful 

5. Principle of timely correction: 

The written work should be corrected within a time limit. Otherwise students will 
continue to make mistakes. 

6. Principle of follow-up: 

The teacher should initiate suitable remedial measures to make the students write 
without mistakes. 

Types of Composition 

There are two types of composition 
i. Oral composition 
ii. Written composition 

Oral composition 

• An oral composition is one in which a student orally expresses his ideas, feeling, needs, 
etc in a few sentences. 

• It is a natural prelude to written composition at the beginning of language learning. 

• Through this exercise, students are able to speak fluently and write correctly. 


Oral Composition Written Composition 

Controlled or guided Free Controlled or guided Free 

Composition Composition Composition Composition 

Advantages of oral composition: 

• It is useful for giving practice in using the language already learnt. 

• It is useful for training the pupils to express their ideas, feelings, observations, etc in the 
new language with confidence as they do it in their mother tongue. 

• It prepares them for written composition. 

• It promotes clear and precise thinking. 

• It develops in the students the skillls of spoken English i.e. pronunciation, stress, 
intonation, etc. 

Stages of oral composition 

1. Primary Stage: 

1 . Direct reproduction of what the teacher says - words or sentences. 

2. The teacher asks questions on simple objects and students answer them. 

3. Execution of commands given by the teacher. 

4. Questions on what the pupils are doing and the pupils answering them. 

5. Pupils questioning on familiar objects or pictures. 

6. Describing an object, a picture or a person in a few connected sentences. 

7. Teacher asks questions on the textual lesson and pupils answer. 

8. Practising simple dialogue on familiar topics. 

9. Narrating simple, interesting short stories. 
10. Dramatization, recitation and oral reading. 

2. Upper Primary Stage 

1 . Conversation, recitation, debate and dramatization. 

2. Teacher's questions based on the text taught and pupils' answers. 

3. Describing common objects and answering questions on them. 

4. Story telling using the clues (after listening to the teacher). 

5. Short speeches about their experiences. 

6. Narrating a story from a series of pictures. 


Oral Composition - A model demonstration 
Model: 1 

Showing the meaning of words. 
Aim: To know the meaning of words 


• Draw a picture of a human face in the blackboard in such a way that it appears to 'smile' . 

• Invite the pupils' attention to the drawing on the board. 

• Have an informal dialogue with the class. 

Teacher : Look, he is smiling. 

Now look at me. 

I'm smiling. (shown by facial expression) 

Smile. We smile when we are happy. 

Smile, please, (gesture) 
Students : (Smile) 

Teacher : Good. What does 'smile' mean? 
Students : They give mother/tongue translation (6< d i f ) 

How do the students benefit by this oral demonstration? 

• Picture on board is so interesting that the students remember it longer. 

• Facial expression gives them a clear meaning. 

• Model sentences show how 'smile' is used as a verb. 

• Teacher's cordial talk and his use of techniques help in easy learning. 

• Translation helps them understand the word clearly. 

Model: 2 

Aim: To focus on listening 

• Read a short story sentence by sentence. 

• Make a few meaningful pauses in the narration of the story. 

• Ask questions to test their listening. 

• Ask children to predict what will happen next. 

• Instruct them to sit in groups and practise telling the story. 

Once there was a boy in a village. His name was ABC. 
He was the son of a poor fisherman 

( 1 . What was the name of the boy?) 
(2. What was his father?) 

He was going home one evening. On his way, he saw an old man lying by the side of 

the road 

( 1 . Where was he going one evening?) 

(2. Who did he see by the side of the road?) 


The boy pitied him. He took him to the hospital. The man was given medical treatment and 
good food. He recovered. He came forward to reward the boy with many gifts. The boy 
declined the gifts. 

Ask student- teachers to frame questions for the above sentences. 



Written Composition 

What is it? 

Students communicate their feelings, ideas, observations, etc. by way of writing in a 

classroom language exercise. 

Preparation for written composition 

i. Oral questioning: 

• It should be specific, detailed and well distributed over the class. 

• It should be focused on definite aspects of the topic. 

• It should make the students look for more information and details of the subject 

ii. Use of pictures: 

• With one composite picture with many details for the entire class or individual 
picture cards for each student, a lot of information can be pooled for a written 

• It is a good aid for writing picture compositions. 

iii. Reading aloud: 

• Reading aloud extracts from interesting articles, magazines, newspaper, etc. 

• A written composition is one which involves oral activity of questions and answers 
on the text read aloud. 

• Students are allowed to have the fun and j oy of reading aloud. 

iv. Short informal talk: 

• The teacher can initiate some short informal discussion on the topic. 

• This helps to prepare the students mentally for the written exercise. 

v. Visits for first hand information. 

• Instead of thrusting all information regarding the topic verbatim, students can be 
allowed to have the joy of experiential learning by visiting the places or persons to 
be written about. 

• The teacher can suggest required details . 

Types of written composition 

There are three types of written composition: 
i. Controlled composition, 
ii. Guided composition 
iii. Free composition. 


The controlled composition: 

• In the 1950s and early 1960s under the influence of the Audio-lingual Method, writing 
was relegated to the secondary position. 

• At lower levels, controlled writing was restricted to copying of sentences or filling- up 
exercises. Students were asked to change the present to the past tense, questions to 
statements or to combine sentences and clauses. 

• Grammar, syntax and mechanics of writing were stressed to help the students develop 
composition skills. 

• The students were not given freedom to construct sentences of their choice. The vocabulary 
was strictly controlled. 

A few examples: 

1. Gap filling: 
The hay 

Listen to the teacher, and complete 
day, I fell on the 
on the 

the sentences. 

• Write the above exercise on the blackboard. 

• Read out the sentences: One sunny day, I fell on the hay. The hay lay on the way. 

• Ask the students to copy them, filling in the gaps in their composition notebooks. 

• Ask the students to read the sentences and write them on the blackboard. 

2. Rearrange the jumbled words and make 
meaningful sentences. 

i. Aran / animals / their sounds / and / birds / 

loved / and. 
ii. He / out / went, 
iii. He / two crows / the tree / on / saw. 


1 . The teacher explains that the sentences describe Aran and his actions. 

2. The students observe the jumbled words written on the blackboard. 

3. They are asked to rearrange the words to make proper sentences. 

4. After the exercise, they read out the sentences. The teacher writes them on the 


3. Substitution: Write statements like this about your friend. 
Kumar enjoys playing football 


1 . Ask students to write a similar sentence about themselves. 

2. Correct the sentence orally. 


Teacher : John, what do you enjoy doing? 

John : I enjoy swimming. 

Teacher : O.K. (Writes 'swimming' on the board.) 

Who else enjoys swimming? 

(He builds up a list of words on the board.) 

Guided Composition 

Composition given under the guidance of the teacher on the choice of the subject matter 
and the expression is called guided composition. 

Why do the students need guidance? 

The teacher's intervention, control and guidance are necessary for students who are at the 
beginning of language learning because- 

i. They have a limited vocabulary, 
ii. They cannot express their ideas freely on their own. 
iii. They may not be familiar with the subject matter to write on it. 

What does the teacher do in guided composition? 

At the early stage of his/her language learning, a child needs to be guided in oral or written 
composition because he/she learns a new language like English by reception, imitation and 

So, the teacher guides the students in the following ways: 
i. He selects the topic after careful consideration. 

ii. He prescribes the vocabulary and structures within the range of students. 
iii. He furnishes the required details or information about the topic, 
iv He takes decision on the procedure of doing the composition, 
v. He is always ready to offer his help to clarify things. 

Procedure of Teaching Guided Composition 

The following steps are taken to teach the guided composition: 

i. Selection of the topic 
ii. Preparation 
iii. Oral practice 
iv. Writing composition 

v. Correction 
vi. Follow-up work 


1. Selection of the topic 

• The first requirement is the selection of a suitable topic. 

• The topic should suit the age or standard of the students. 

• It also needs to be interesting and familiar to them. 

2. Preparation 

• The teacher should see that his students get enough information on the subject matter. 

• He can also use their mother tongue for enlightening the students on the topic. 

3. Oral practice 

• The students should get enough oral practice before writing the exercises. 

• This can be done through question - answer mode. 

4. Writing of composition 

• This is the most important step. 

• The teacher gives an outline summary of the composition. 

• Students expand and develop on the given outlines. 

• They can seek the teacher's help and guidance at any time of writing the composition. 

5. Correction 

• The teacher corrects the mistakes then and there. 

• This is done as early as possible. 

6. Follow-up work 

• The teacher diagnoses the difficulties of the students and the nature of the mistakes 

• He takes appropriate remedial measures so that the students know what their weak 
points are and how to work on them. 

Exercises for guided composition 

i. Writing from substitution tables 

ii. Writing paragraph from the blackboard 
iii. Filling in the blanks 

iv. Arranging jumbled words / sentences 

v. Writing parallel paragraphs 

vi. Conversion of sentences 
vii. Picture composition 
viii. Story writing 

ix. Writing dialogues 

x. Questions - answers 


Model Exercises: 

1. Arranging jumbled words into sentences. 

Aim : Rearranging jumbled words to make up a sentence. 

1. Pair the students and ask one person in each pair to prepare to write on a sheet of 

2. Dictate the first sentence from the jumbled extracts. One person in each pair writes it 

3. Ask the pairs to rewrite the jumbled words into a meaningful sentence, using all the 
words and putting in necessary punctuation. 

4. Tell the pairs to check grammar and spelling errors and correct them wherever necessary. 

5. Dictate the second jumbled sentence. 

6. Repeat steps 3 and 4. 

7. When you have dictated all the sentences in this way give out the original you have 

8. Ask the students to compare their rearranged sentences with the answers. 

9. Ask them to write the exercise in their composition note book. 

Jumbled Extracts 

1 . Went Chennai I to week last. 

2. My I uncle went with. 

3 . was it pleasant a evening. 

4. beach the took he me to. 

5. was it wonderful. 

Unjumbled extract 

1 . I went to Chennai last week. 

2. I went with my uncle. 

3 . It was a pleasant evening. 

4. He took me to the beach. 

5. It was wonderful. 


You can use the source book material. 

It may enhance the students' interest. 


Free Composition 

Do you agree with the following observation? 

Most of the examinations in Indian schools ask students to write a paragraph or an 
essay on some stereotyped topics or write a precis / summary / letter which they find 
tiring and frustrating. This results in memorising paragraphs or essays from cheap, 
easy bazaar notes. 

Free composition 

• "The ultimate aim of composition is to enable the pupils to arrange their own ideas in 
their own way - to choose their words to express their ideas freely. Hence the term "free 
composition? (H. Champion) 

• The aim of free composition is to enable the students to express themselves correctly 
and creatively on a topic. 

• It need not be introduced in the initial years of a language study. 

Features of free composition 

i. There are no restrictions on pupils for the use of vocabulary and structure. 
ii. There are no rigid restriction to the length of the composition, 
iii. They are free to select the topic, 
iv. Their writing needs to be original and creative, 
v. Proper organization of subject matter and accuracy of presentation are very important. 

Categories of free composition 

There are mainly five categories: 
i. Narrative or descriptive 
ii. Story type 
iii. Reflective 
iv. Imaginative 
v. Literary writing 

Exercises of free composition 

i. Paragraph construction 

ii. Paraphrasing 

iii. Letter writing 

iv. Application writing 

v. Essay writing 

vi. Descriptive writing 

vii. Narrative writing 

viii. Story writing 

ix. Precis writing 

x. Poetry writing 


Some models of free composition 

Paragraph is apiece of writing which represents a logical organization of ideas. 

• It is the simplest form of free composition. 

• It may be written on any topic of interest or an event which students have witnessed or 

• The teacher may give important key words to be used. 

• The essential requirement is relevance and coherence of sentences to the topic. 

Model exercise 
1. Brainstorming 

Aim: To develop independent writing. 

1 . Give the students a topic / subject which you feel will focus their minds. 

2. Encourage them to go in for a personal rather than a gereralised response. 

3 . Tell them that you will not mark any mistakes but will only be concerned with the ideas 
or experiences they describe. 



• A memory from my childhood. 

• A place I know 

• A person I know 

• Something I love doing 

• Something I hate doing 

• My favourite TV. programme 

• The game I like most. 

2. Descriptive Writing 

It is used in many situations 

• Persons 

• Places 

• Objects 

Descriptive writing is the enumeration of certain details that go into the making an object 
or a person or a place. 

1. Describing persons 

• In describing persons, we usually concentrate on their physical features, complexion, 
age, clothes, character, etc. 

• Students must know the language items appropriate for such a description. 


2. Describing places 

• In describing places, focus should be on location and spatial relationships. 

• Students should be aware of the language needed for such description. 

3. Describing objects: 

• Students need to know the specific language items that help to describe things i.e. shape, 
size, colour, quality, material, etc. 


Aim: Describe an object, a person, a place or an event. 

1 . Describe an object in the class room and at the end of the description, ask 'what is it' ? 

2. Follow this with a description of a person who is known to the students. 

3. Students must try to identify what or who you have described. 

4. Once the oral practice is over, individual students begin their written exercise. 

5. Suggest an object / a person / a place for description. 

Teacher : It has got three blades. But it doesn't cut. 

It gives a current of air. What is it? 
Student : The fan. 
Teacher : The person wears a black coat. He fights for wronged people in the court. He 

advises his clients on matters of law. Who is he? 
Student : Lawyer. 

Story Writing: 

It is an important exercise of free composition. 

A story may be introduced by the teacher with the help of a set of pictures. 

By putting leading questions, various details of the story outlined. 

The teacher gives an outline of the story on the blackboard. 

Students develop the story with the help of the outline and key words. 


Aim : To listen to a story being told, read the outline of the story and write the story. 

1 . Tell a short story to the class. 

2. Enrich your story using a picture or a set of pictures / narration and also by miming. 

3. Observe whether the students enjoy the story as you narrate. 

4. Write the text of the story on the blackboard. 

5. Ask the students to read the story silently. 

6. Erase a small part of the story - one or two words from each sentence. 

7. Ask a student to read out the text of the story to the class supplying the missing words 
from his/her memory. 

8. Continue in this way until the whole text has been erased and retold. 

9. Ask the students to write or reconstruct the story in their composition note books. 



Abangle seller came to Geetha's village. He came to the village fair. He brought a lot 
of colourful bangles. Geetha's mother bought a dozen glass bangles. She put them in a 
box and gave it to Geetha. Geetha took the box and ran out to show it to her friends. In 
her hurry, she tripped on a stone and fell down. But the box did not open. The glass 
bangles were safe. Geetha was happy. 

Ask students to give a different end to the story. 

Expansion Exercises'. 

> This is a good technique that gives students an opportunity to make many sentences in 
varying degrees of complexity and meaning. 

> This technique is useful particularly in helping students learn how to add modifying 
words, phrases and clauses. 


1 . The teacher, through a set of instructions, asks the students to add a new element to the 
basic sentence. 

2. He asks them to make all necessary changes in punctuation, syntax, etc. that are needed 
because of the addition of the new elements. 

3. He asks the students to read aloud the new sentence. 

4. This expansion work can be done individually or in groups. 

5. This exercise is done orally as well as through writing. 


In expansion exercises, sentences are extracted with the use of 

i. Adjectives (big, small ) 

ii. Adverbs of frequency (always, often ) 

iii. Adverbs of time / place (in the morning/ here / there. . . .) 
iv. Prepositional phrases (in this room/ at the bank . . . .) 
v. Relative clauses, (who is a businessman /a circus artist. . .) 



Basic sentence 
Teacher (prompts) 
Model exercises 

Mr. Sam is busy. 


Mr. Sam is often busy. 

On Sundays 

Mr. Sam is often busy on Sundays. 

1. Expanding headlines. 

Aim : Building grammatical sentences out of newspaper headlines. 

1 . Bring an English newspaper to the class. 

2. Ask the students to pick out a headline from it. 

3. Write the headline on the blackboard and read it out to the class. 

4. Give an initial assistance of adding a word or phrase. 

5. Ask the students to write out the information in a full sentence. 

6. Students expand the headline as much as they can. 

7. The student with the longest and error- free sentence will be the winner. 


PM to visit Tiruchendur 

'The Prime minister will be visiting Tiruchendur, a temple town in Tamilnadu' 


2. Expanding commands 

Aim: Forming grammatical imperative sentences by adding words or phrases. 

1 . Suggest a single action word, preferably a simple command / instruction. 

2. Ask the students to obey the command. 

3. Give a series of additions to the command and ask them to perform accordingly. 

4. Any one who makes a mistake is out of the game. 

5. Write these commands on the blackboard and ask the students to read them. 

6. Ask the students to write similar series of commands in their composition notebooks. 

7. The students who have created maximum number of commands are appreciated and 
declared the winner. 


Introduction: A point to ponder 

Here are some sentences spoken or written by the students. What is the error in each one? 
What suggestions could you give to help the students correct the errors? 

Yesterday I go to 
school early 

He live in Delhi 

Janet is more taller 
than Kamala 

Where she is 

He is very short, 
isn't it? 


Any composition work involves the following six stages: 

1. Teacher's preparation. 

2. Student's oral practice. 

3. Student's writing. 

4. Teacher's correction 

5. Remedial work. 

6. Follow-up work. 

> In spite of all the detailed preparatory measures, students may make mistakes. They have 
to correct them in a way beneficial to the students. 

Objectives of Remedial Work: 

• To point out the mistakes of the pupils so as to enable them to learn the correct forms. 

• To offer suggestions to each student to improve his composition. 

• To point out the mistakes in their language and suggest better ways of expression. 

Main areas of errors: 

• While correcting the exercises, it is useful for the teacher to have a notebook to record 
the frequency of various categories of errors. 

Students tend to commit mistakes mostly in the following language items. 

1 . Syntax (order of words to form a sentence) 

2. Structural words 

3. Content words 

4. Spelling 

5. Punctuation 

6. Paragraph organization 

Causes for errors: 

1. Carelessness or indifference 

2. Confusion over selection of words or structuring of sentences. 

3. Improper use of new language items. 

4. Mother-tongue interference. 

5. Ignorance of rules. 

Strategies to reduce errors: 

1. Drill work: 

There should be plenty of drill work in the class. 

Drill in oral practice helps the students in avoiding mistakes in the construction of 

sentences and spelling. 

2. Oral correction: 

The teacher goes round the class, observes each one's notebook and points out the 
mistakes orally. 

It saves time. Moreover the student becomes aware of his mistakes on the spot and 
corrects himself. 


3. Teacher's record: 

The teacher has a separate record / diary to categorise the errors of his students and 
the frequency of their occurrences. This helps him in his remedial teaching and in 
evaluating his teaching strategy. 

4. Setting attainable goals: 

The teacher should set an exercise considering his students' level or standard. 
He has to avoid unfamiliar or unknown subject matter and language items. 

Correction of mistakes: 

• Self-correction of mistakes is the best method. Pupils may be asked to point out their 
own mistakes. When they are aware of their mistake, they may not commit them again. 

• The teacher may go round the class as they write and point out the mistakes then and 

• After the composition is over, the teacher carries out his correction work as early as 
possible. He adopts some appropriate symbols and tells his students what they stand for. 

A - Article mistake 

Sp - Spelling 

T - Tense or Verb 

Gr - Grammatical or Structural error 

Ww - Wrong word 

Wo - Error in word order 

P - Punctuation 

A - Something missing 

? - Doubtful statement 

a - Join the words 

// - separate them 

Z - irrelevant. 
Exploration : 
Read the four correction techniques undertaken by four teachers: 

Teacher A 

I collect the note books at 
the end of the composition 
class, and correct them 
during the leisure hour. 
Then I return them the next 


Teacher B 

just go through the answers 
and get the students to 
correct their own work. 
Sometimes I write sentences 
on the board. 

Teacher C 

I ask the students to sit in 
pairs and correct each 
other's work, helping each 
other. Then we all go 
through the answers 

Teacher D 

ask students to exchange 
the notebooks with the 
person next to them. Then I 
go through the answers and 
they correct each others 

1 . Which of these techniques, do you think, will succeed? 

2. Discuss with your peers the advantages and disadvantages of each technique. 

3. Get your lecturer to give his own ideas. 




It means two different aspects or processes 

> Self-expression. 

> Extraordinary way of expression. 

i. Self expression: 

It may take any form - a process, a product, a discovery, a new piece of writing 

Creativity in writing is a form of self-expression. 

ii. Extraordinary way of expression 

It is a unique and original way of expression. 

It is the specific way of expressing an idea or a thought. 

It is much beyond the levels of his / her peers. 

Can creativity be developed? 

• No academic marvel is beyond the power of a good and dedicated teacher. If he can't, who 
else can? 

• The teacher of English should try to stimulate the creative instinct inherent in every student. 

• Composition is the best jump- start for the students in creative writing. Nothing can be 
communicated unless it is first composed. 

• Orderly arrangement of ideas, words or sentences within the grammatical norms, a new 
way of expression or usage of a new meaning to a word are examples of creativity. 

• The teacher should always recognize and support such efforts. Then creativity is not far 
from the students' door steps. 

Steps necessary for creative writing 

1 . During the academic year, ample opportunities should be given for writing creative 
compositions. In these exercises, free or picture composition, coining of new and 
novel meanings or uses of words, writing new modern verse on objects, persons or 
events can be tried. 

2. The teacher should be a guiding and inspiring model. 

3. The teacher should be conscientious of the feelings, aspirations and insights of the 
students. He must observe them keenly and facilitate in bringing their hidden talents 

4. He can arrange for a language club or creative writers' forum as a platform for sharing 
their innovations and creations with their peers. 


Model exercises for developing creative competency 
Model- 1: Imaginative Descriptions 

Aim: Describing things or persons / place in an imaginative and humorous way. 
Preparation: Any two pictures large enough for the class to see clearly. 

1. Hold up two pictures chosen at random and ask the students to suggest a possible 
relation between them. 

2. Encourage them to think widely and suggest imaginative, humorous and even ridiculous 

3. The connections can be personal or objective. 

4. The descriptions can be short or long. 


Student 1 : A learned man is useful to the society. 

The tree is also useful to the society. 
Student 2 : Man moves everywhere. 

The tree doesn't move. 


Model-2: Imaginative Identification 

Aim: Imaginative identification and vocabulary practice. 

Teacher : What is this? 
Student : A pen. 
Teacher : No, it isn't. 

(pretend to fly the pen around as if it were a plane) What is it? 
Student : It is a plane. 


1 . Hold up an object (say, a pen) and start a conversation 

2. Give the pen to a student and ask him or her to pretend that it is something else. 

3. Continue around the class for as long as imaginative ideas are forthcoming. 

4. If the students need more inspiration, you suggest a few more examples. 
Note: Replace the pen with a stick or a towel and repeat the same exercise. 

Objects and what they could represent 

Pen : plane / screw driver / cigarette / flute / tester 


Cup : hat / micro phone / face and nose / nest / search light 

Book: Pillow / rectangle / baby / slate / tray 

Notebook: roof / bird / telescope / mirror / bat 


Developing Strategic Competency 

To acquire proficiency in any language, one should use it meaningfully - one should 
use it for communication. He must possess certain prerequisites like knowledge of language 
elements, experiences and also certain skills or competencies. Along with the basic skills 
of listening, speaking, reading and writing, a learner should acquire more skills like study 
skills, occupational competency, creative competency and strategic competency. He reaches 
the desired expected level in language acquisition if he could understand, produce and 
manipulate varieties of language forms and styles. Strategic competency is that skill which 
helps the learner to use the language for specific language purposes. 


Model 1 

Collocation is a combination of words that go together in a way that sounds natural. 

Example: 'Strong coffee' not 'Powerful coffee'. 

The word 'strong' and 'coffee' go together. Which words can go with 'weather'? Use a 

Model 2 

When students come across a new word, they are likely to be interested in learning 
the new word if they are helped to identify some words of that category or family. 

Suggest some related words to the following: drink, furniture 



Reasons for failure to learn English as a second language in some places may be 
attributed to the three major factors as identified below. Each of them consists of several 
factors. Try to think of as many sub-factors as possible, for each major factor. (Try to think 
in terms of lack of improvement in writing skills). 





Choose ten weak/ slow learners. Ask them to write a short paragraph on any topic of 
their choice. Pick out all the errors. Then classify them into the following categories. Find 
out in which category students commit more mistakes. Try to investigate the causes for it. 
Suggest some remedial measures. 









of sentences 

Task 3 

A task based approach is considered the most suitable for teaching English especially 
for teaching oral composition as it involves meaningful interaction and provides a genuine 
desire for gathering information. Here some sample tasks are assigned for you to give a 
try. (You can try these exercises with your students during teaching practice sessions). 

1. Describing an Object: 

i. Describe your school bag / pencil / tiffin box. 

ii. Describe your classroom / master's chair / black board. 

2. Giving instructions / directions: 

i. Give instruction to your neighbours at your bench to draw the following diagrams 

Happy Sad Laughing Crying 

ii. Give directions to a stranger to go to the post office / the bank. 

3. Testing your creativity: Riddles 

Give instruction to your peers / students to think of an object, describe its salient 
features without naming what it is. Ask them to write all these details on a piece of 
paper. Try to elicit answers from the class. 

Example: I have four legs. But I cannot move on my own. I have two arms. But I cannot 
hold anything. Who am I? (Arm chair) 

Other examples: duster, chalk, clock, comb, candle. . . 



1 . Saraswathi, V., 'English Language Teaching: Principles and Practice' , Orient Longman 

Pvt Ltd. (2004). 

2. Adrian Doff, 'Teach English', Cambridge University Press (2003). 

3. Gupta, P. K., 'Teaching of English' , R. Lall Book Depot. 

4. Venkateswaran, 'Principles of Teaching English', Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd. 

5. Plenny Ur. Andrew Wright, 'Five Minute Activities: A Resource Book for Language 
Teachers', Cambridge University Press (1996). 

6. Penny Ur., 'Grammar Practice Activities: A Practical Guide for Teachers' , Cambridge 
University Press (2006). 





Facilitating and measuring growth and progress in learning a language. 


Collecting information on the progress of students' learning using a variety 
of procedures (e.g., checklists, formal tests, inventories, self-assessment, 
writing folders). 


Making judgments on the basis of the information collected. 


Assigning a mark based on the information gathered from assessment 


Conveying the results. 

1. Evaluation and Assessment 

Information gathered on checklists, anecdotal records, and other assessment data can 
be translated into a grade or marks (e.g., A+ or 72%) for reporting purposes. Students, 
parents, administrators, and the community as a whole should understand what will be 
evaluated and the role evaluation plays in curriculum and instruction. Evaluation is the 
process of making judgments on the basis of the information collected relative to the learning 
objectives. Assessment is the process of gathering the required information to make 
judgments for evaluation. Grading involves assigning a mark as a means of conveying the 
judgment. Reporting is conveying the results of the judgments made. In addition to 
determining student progress, evaluation communicates the message that a programme and 
each of its components are valid and significant. 

1.1 Why Evaluate? 

Evaluation is used for various purposes in education. Student evaluation measures 
students' growth, development, and progress against stated learning objectives. Students 
need evaluation to let them know if they are meeting those learning objectives. 
Programmeme evaluation is a means of deciding how well the programme is meeting the 
needs and abilities of students. It is a task that involves teachers, parents, school, and system 
administrators. Evaluation tells educators the strengths and weaknesses of the programme 
in order that adjustments and adaptations can be made. In addition, teachers grow 
professionally when they reflect on their own teaching and when they keep themselves 
informed of current instructional strategies and evaluation methods that they could use in 
their programmes. 

Finally, education is a public undertaking and, in addition to being accountable to students, 
the school system is accountable to parents and society at large. Occasionally, there may be 
an evaluation to provide information for the public to judge the effectiveness of the education 
system. An example of such a systemic evaluation of students' learning which is organized 
by administrative, instructional, and research functions, is shown in the following chart. 


The Purpose of the Assessment 

General purpose of 
the assessment 

Specific reason for 
the assessment 




general assessment 






evidence of progress 

feedback to the respondent 

evaluation of teaching or curriculum 



knowledge about language learning 

and language use 

Objectives of Assessment 

To find out: 

• if instruction was effective, 

• if students need more instruction, 

• if students are ready for the next step, 

• if a different approach is required, and how instruction can be improved the next time this 
lesson is taught. 

Teachers need to: 

• provide diagnostic and formative feedback to learners, 

• gather information for reporting purposes (marks or grades), 

• identify the appropriate level for a new student (placement), 

• determine whether or not a student meets programme requirements (certification), and 

• motivate learners to study and make steady progress. 

Learners need to: 

• know what is expected of them, 

• know what they can do to improve their performance, 

• understand what will comprise their course grade or marks and 

• perceive evaluation as fair and meaningful. 


Principles and Key Characteristics of Assessment for Learning 

Assessment for learning is based on the following ten principles. 


-y- is part of effective planning 

-y- focuses on how students learn 

-y- is central to classroom practice 

•$■ is an important professional skill 

■$■ is sensitive and constructive 

•$■ fosters motivation 

-y- promotes understanding of goals and criteria 

-y~ helps learners know how to improve 

-♦■ develops the capacity for self-assessment [and peer assessment] 

-y- recognizes all educational achievement. 

Key characteristics of assessment 

•$■ It is embedded in a view of teaching and learning of which it is an essential part. 
■y- It sharing the goals of learning with learners. 
-♦■ It aims to help pupils know and recognise the level of their aims. 
-y- It involves pupils in self-assessment [and peer assessment] . 
-y- It provides feedback that leads to pupils identifying and planning their next steps, 
-v- It emphasizes that every student can improve. It involves both teacher and pupils in 
reviewing and reflecting on the assessment data. 


1. Oral Assessment 

2. Oral Exam Questions 

3. Entertainment 

Samples: On preferences 

What kinds of movies do you like? 

Name some of the movies you have seen. 

Do you think there is too much violence on TV and in movies? 

Should movies be certified? (This means that children won't be allowed to watch some 

movies that contain violence, sexual themes, etc). 

What kind of books do you like? 

Should books be censored? 

What fun things can people do for Rs.80? 

What do you do in your spare time? 

What kind of movies do you dislike? 

What kind of music do you like? 

What games do you like? 

What do you think about computer games? 


What sports do you like? 
What magazines do you like? 

Sample on Society 

Do you think we should worry about the environment? 

What causes poverty? 

Do you think women are discriminated against? 

What do you think about the one child policy? 

Are illegal drugs a problem in the North-East? 

What can we do about pollution? 

Should the main goal of a company be to make money? 

Should the government help poor people? 

Should rich people help poor people? 

Why are there so many wars? 

Is religion a good or bad thing? 

Should rich countries help poor ones? 

What do you think about the death penalty for serious crimes? 

What do you think about beggars? 

Some more samples of oral tests ( Mixed Type) 

1 . How does your family usually celebrate New Year/Pongal? 

2. Have computers improved our lives? 

3. What motivates you to study? 

4. What do you like about India ? 

5. Would you like to own a car? Why or why not? 

6. In your opinion, what are the qualities important in a friend? 

7. Should rich countries pollute the world more? 

8. Who is your favourite teacher in your school, and why? 

9. When did you last go on a holiday? What was it like? 

10. If you hadn't entered college, what job would you like to have? 

11. What kinds of books do you like? 

12. In what ways are you similar to, or different from, your parents? 

13. Is it important to look good? Why or why not? 

14. Should India continue its space programme? Why or why not? 

15 . Do you agree with the saying, "Where wealth accumulates man decays"? 

16. Is religion a good thing or a bad thing? 

17. What do you do in your spare time? 

1 8 . What kind of movies do you dislike ? 

19. What do you plan to do during the next summer? 

20. When did you visit the library last? And which book did you read? 


Instruction - Role Play 

1. Son or daughter 

You will finish Primary school this year. You haven't yet decided where you want to 
continue your studies . But you definitely want to decide for yourself. Explain this 
to your father. 

2. Test for Generosity 

You are in a queue for buying a ticket. But an old man has got only one ticket but 
now needs one more to take his wife also. The counter closes after issuing you the 
last ticket. What will you do? 

3. Mother 

You are very proud of your son. You hope he will study hard at the school and score 
more than 90% of marks in +2 examinations. Revision tests prove that he is getting 
only 60-70 in core subjects. You learn that he has been spending time in watching 
cricket matches in a friend's home. What will you do? 

1. Brother 

Your brother /sister will finish high school this year. You want him/her to study 
engineering at Anna University. Explain this to him/her. 

Start with: It's time to start thinking about university 

2. Kamala's friend 

You don't think Kamala should sacrifice her job, just for Latha. She should stay in 
Delhi. Give your advice to Kamala. 

3. Friend 

Listen to your friend's problem, and give your advice. 
Start with: What's the matter? 

4. Friend 

Your brother is a doctor who often works long hours at the hospital. He is a quiet 
thoughtful person. Should you introduce him to your local MP? Discuss the situation 
with your friend. 

5. Son/daughter 

Tell your mother about your new friend in your Hostel. 
Start with: I've been so happy recently. 


Written Assessment 

There are many kinds of written assessments. They are broadly divided into objective 
tests and subjective tests. They are discussed at length below. 

Objective Tests 

The following describes the generic characteristics of objective tests and discusses 
their overall strengths and weaknesses. It then examines the different forms that objective 
test items can take, and offers advice on how to decide which type to use in any given 
situation. Finally, it provides detailed practical guidance on how to write objective questions 
of different types, on how to evaluate objective test items, and on how to mark objective 

General characteristics of objective tests 

Objective tests are tests that are made up of items which provide a selection of 
alternative answers from which the learner has to choose rather than supply the answered by 
himself. As a result, such tests can be marked with complete reliability by anyone - including 
non-subject specialists; indeed, they can often be marked and scored electronically. It is 
from this intrinsic objectivity that the name of such tests is derived - not, as is sometimes 
erroneously supposed, because they are in some way related to instructional objectives. In 
the past, such tests were often criticised on the grounds that they were really only suitable 
for use at lower cognitive level, that is for testing knowledge and comprehension. It is now 
recognised that this is not necessarily the case, and that it is perfectly possible (albeit 
slightly more difficult) to design highly effective objective items to test at the middle 
levels of the cognitive domain (application and analysis) and also to test in some non- 
cognitive areas. It is, however, much more difficult to design objective test items for use at 
the highest levels of the cognitive domain (synthesis and evaluation). In most cases, such 
items are unsuitable for testing in these areas, although it is possible nowadays to use 
knowledge-based packages for diagnosing the presence or absence of particular skills. 

The main strength of objective tests is the fact that they can be marked with 100% 
reliability, thus completely eliminating the possibility of marker subjectivity or bias. The 
fact that objective items are generally comparatively short also means that students can be 
asked to complete a much larger number of questions than would be possible in a 
conventional extended-answer test; this enables such tests to cover a much wider part of the 
syllabus, thus increasing their overall validity and making it unnecessary to provide students 
with a choice of questions. Objective items can also be designed to focus on specific 
knowledge and skills, and, since the relative difficulty of items is often known from trial 
testing, they can be set at any required level of difficulty. Such items can also be 'banked' 
and re-used - something that has become very much easier since the advent of the modern 
high-capacity microcomputer. Objective tests are also extremely easy to administer and 
mark tasks that can again be carried out by computer if the designer so wishes. This can be 
done either by producing machine-readable student response sheets that can be scanned by 


data capture devices, such as an Optical Mark Reader (OMR) connected to a computer, or 
by delivering the test itself via computer. 

Objective tests do have a number of intrinsic weaknesses, the main one being that 
good, valid items with an appropriate degree of discrimination between strong and weak 
students are notoriously difficult and time-consuming to construct and evaluate. Indeed, 
there are so many potential pitfalls in the design of such items that it is almost essential that 
they be subjected to some sort of field testing before being used in an actual test or 
examination - particularly if it is an important one (a common/public examination, for 
example). A related weakness is that it has not hitherto been possible to see the reasoning 
that leads a candidate to give a wrong answer - reasoning that might, in some cases, be just 
as valid as that which leads to the 'correct' answer. It is problems of this type that make it so 
important to field test objective items before use. As we have seen, objective items can 
also be limited in terms of the type of skills and learning outcomes that they can be used to 
test. Most computer-based-assessment packages now operate in a choice of modes, and it 
is here, in astute combination of what can be described as tutorial and examination mode, 
that new horizons - which combine objective testing with assistance in reaching the correct 
answer - are being reached. 

The different types of objective test items 

Let us now take a look at some of the different forms that objective test items 
can take. 

True or False and Yes or No type Questions 

True or false questions are formed after statements. A statement has to be marked true 
(T) or false (F). Student has to identify the correct statements, e.g. 

1. New Delhi is the capital of India. ( ) 

2. The parrot is our national bird. ( ) 

Questions with verbs such as do, did, does, have, has are called Yes/No type questions. 
The answers would begin with either Yes or No. e.g. 

1 . Does the earth go round the sun? 

2. Is milk white? 

3. Can you drive a car? 

Fill in the blanks: 

1 . is the most populous nation in the world. (China, Japan, India) 

2. got the first Nobel Prize for literature in India? (Sarojini Naidu, Tagore, 

Tom Dutt) 



1. Fat 


Compound noun 

2. Dining-Table 


Gerund/Verbal noun 

3. Swimming 



4. Himalayas 


Personal pronoun 

5. We 


Proper noun 



Sentence completion 

1 . She went to 

2. She read the 

3. She returned the 

Odd Man Out 

Students have to find out which one is different from the group. 

1 . Papaya, apple, paddy, banana 

2. Dog, lion, wolf, tiger 

3. Python, kingfisher, cobra, Viper 

Transformation of sentences 

1 . Hema must work hard to make-up for the period of sickness (Change into a compound 

2. The thief confessed his guilt . (Change the simple sentence to complex) 

3. He saw the snake. He ran away. (Combine the simple sentences into a single simple 

Scrambled sentences 

Scrambled sentences are given to enable children to learn how to place words in order 
to form meaningful sentences. 

1 . A radio my bought me last father week. 

2. The customer handed the cashier to the cash. 

Picture Descriptions 

This is a 

2. This is 

This is a 


Multiple Choice Questions 

By far the most widely used type of objective item is the multiple-choice question (or 
MCQ). In its most common form, this consists of a simple question or incomplete statement 
which poses the problem (the stem), and four or more possible answers or completions, 
one of these being correct (the key) and the others being incorrect (the distractors). 
Examples of the two basic forms are given below. 

Stem in the form of a question 

Example- 1 

What is most important for photosynthesis? STEM 



(c) Sunlight D KEY 

(d) Moonlight O DISTRACTOR 


Who wrote the book "The White Tiger"? STEM 

(a) Joseph Conrad D DISTRACTOR 

(b) Ernest Hemingway D DISTRACTOR 

(c) Jim Corbett O DISTRACTOR 

(d) AravindAdiga D KEY 

(e) Prabakaran D DISTRACTOR 

3. Items with more than one correct answer 

Which of the following countries have a large population? 

(a) France O DISTRACTOR 

(b) China O KEY 

(c) The United Kingdom O DISTRACTOR 

(d) India O KEY 

(e) Brunei O DISTRACTOR 



The Cloze Test 

A cloze test is an exercise, test, or assessment consisting of a portion of text with 
certain words removed, where the participant is asked to replace the missing words. Cloze 
tests require the ability to understand context and vocabulary in order to identify the correct 
words or type of words that belong in the deleted passages of a text. This exercise is 
commonly administered for the assessment of native and second language learning and 
instruction. Words may be deleted from the text in question either mechanically (every 
sixth word) or selectively, depending on exactly what aspect it is intended to test for. Students 
would then be required to fill in the blanks with words that would best complete the passage. 
Context in language and content terms is essential in most, if not all, cloze tests. 


Today I went to the supermarket and bought some milk and eggs. I knew it was going to 
rain, but I forgot to take my umbrella and ended up getting drenched on the way home. 

Cloze Test 

1. Today I went to the 

was going to rain, but I forgot to take my 
on the way 

_and bought some milk and eggs. I knew it 
and ended up getting 

Samples of a cloze test 

Directions for administering and evaluating the cloze test 

The strict version of the test requires that students provide the correct term for each 
blank, while a looser version has also been used that accepts "partially correct" answers, 
such as those that are the correct part of speech (verb, noun, pronoun, etc.). These answers 
indicate that students are learning the syntactic rules of language, but are as yet unable to 
translate these into a semantic comprehension of the text. 

2. Cloze Test on The old woman who lived in a school. 
Deleted words from the passage 





take in 






Fill in suitable answers 

Your name: 

There once was an old woman who 

(1) in a shoe. This 
(2) a shoe 

must have been very cramped and difficult because living 

is not very comfortable, I expect. One day, she went out and there 

(3) some children playing in the street nearby where she lived. They began shouting 

(4) her. "You silly old woman, why do you live in a shoe?", they shouted, 

and other things like that. They were very insulting (5) the old 



I don't know why the old woman had to live in a shoe, but she (6) have 

been very poor, and it was not nice to (7) fun of the poor woman because 

she was so hard up that she had nowhere (8) to live. But children can be 

very cruel sometimes, and this case was (9) exception. However, 

on this occasion the old woman didn't just (10) their insults meekly, but 

became very angry and, shouted "I will teach you a (1 1)", she chased them 

with a cane. 

Subjective tests 

Subjective tests are based on opinions. A subjective test tests the student's skill, 
based on the criteria developed subjectively. The teacher tests not the accuracy of ideas but 
the way the student presents them and how well the answer is organized and how the student 
is able to argue for or against a topic. Essay and paragraph questions which challenge the 
students' critical and analytical thinking abilities fall under this category. It is tragic that 
some essay questions are fact based and do not expect the students' point of view but what 
the author has said.Those who constuct tests should bear in mind the fact that a subjective 
test, especially in languages, need not expect a student to simply restate what a poem or a 
prose piece says. Instead, what a student has understood from the prescribed lesson needs 
to be tested. Besides, there must be a scope for the students' interpretation, ideas and 
observations so that the teacher can also have an insight into the thinking process of the 

The QUOTE Strategy to develop the technique of responding to Subjective questions 
Q - Question 
Ask the Question: 

What are the direction words in the essay test item? 

Direction words give you instructions as to how to answer the question. 
Bracket the direction words on the test question. 

Practice (Identify the direction words in the following examples.) 

1 . What is the relationship between cognitive effort and long-term memory? 

2. The brave fight of Commandos to rescue people stranded in Taj Hotel in Mumbai 
during the terrorist attack. 

3. Micro sociology focuses on social interaction, whereas macro sociology focuses on 
social structure. Explain why both are necessary for an understanding of social life 

Answers {The direction words are bracketed.) 

1 . What is the [relationship] between cognitive effort and long-term memory? 

2. Focus on the time, persons and place where the action took place. 

3. Micro sociology focuses on social interaction, whereas macro sociology focuses on 
social structure. [Explain] why both are necessary for an understanding of social life. 


U - Underline 

Underline the words in the question that help you focus your answer. For example if 
this were the question: 

1 . Blood glucose levels are regulated by the pancreas. Whenever blood sugar levels are 
too high, the pancreas releases a hormone called insulin. Explain the mechanism by 
which insulin lowers the level of blood sugar in the body. 

You might underline the following words: 

1 . Blood glucose levels are regulated by the pancreas. Whenever blood sugar levels are 
too high, the pancreas releases a hormone called insulin. [Explain] the mechanism by 
which insulin lowers the level of blood sugar in the body. 

O - Organize and Write 

1 . List what you know about the question. 

2. Organize the information using an appropriate pattern of organization. Use the pattern 
suggested by the direction word. 

3. Write your answer. Begin your answer with an introduction that reviews the question. 
Then in each succeeding paragraph open with a sentence that is a main point. Write 
supporting statements for each main point. End with a paragraph that states your 

4. Show the instructor that you understand the material covered in class. 

5 . Write your answer as if you were communicating with someone who does not already 
know the answer. 

T - Time 

Before beginning the test, consider the amount of time you have been given. 
Budget your time based upon the point values assigned. Decide how much time you will 
spend on each section of the test. 

Allow time for reviewing your answers 

E - Evaluate 

Did I answer all parts of the item? 

Did I include all the relevant facts? 

Are all my facts accurate? 

Did I answer the question that was asked? 

Was my answer detailed and complete? 

Is my answer clearly organized? 

Is my handwriting legible? 

Did I spell my words correctly? 

Did I use correct punctuation and grammar? 

How could I have improved my answer? 


Direction Words Used in Essay Questions 


break down into parts to discuss the whole 


state similarities as well as differences 


emphasize differences 


express your view of the truth, faults, or merits of an issue 


give the meaning of a word or concept 


give an account of; present a detailed picture of something 


examine, analyze, consider from various points of view 


list, number, name 


provide reasons for something 


judge something using a set of criteria 


provide examples 


give reasons or evidence to support a position 


offer a sketch of the main points, or provide a summary 


offer reasons to establish the truth of something 


show how two or more things are connected 


state the main points about something 


provide reasons that favour a point of view 


state a series of things in a time sequence 

Principles of Student Evaluation 

Given that the most important function of evaluation is the promotion of learning, the 
following principles should be reflected in the evaluation of students. 
-y- Evaluation should reflect the stated learning objectives and be integrated with instruction, 
"v* Evaluation should be continuous and useful. 

•$■ Evaluation expectations should be communicated clearly from the beginning. 
-♦■ Evaluation should be fair and equitable. 
-y- Evaluation should be constructive. 
■$■ Evaluation should be balanced and comprehensive. 

The overall evaluation should address all language strands and balance its orientation. 
For example, consideration should be given to: 

Teacher/peer/self-evaluation . 

Teacher created assignments, tests, and observations should continue to provide 
important evaluation information. Peer evaluation should provide many opportunities for 


extending learning and for increasing student confidence and ownership in the learning 
process. Self-monitoring and evaluation should allow students to become aware of their 
own learning and to enhance it. 


The assessment and evaluation processes should involve multiple perspectives and 
sources of data. Content, process, and product each play a role in assessment and evaluation. 
Students must know "what" they are required to learn (i.e. content), "how" they are expected 
to learn (i.e. process), and "what evidence" they will be required to produce as a result of 
that understanding (i.e. product). As much as possible, students should be introduced to a 
variety of ways to learn and demonstrate their learning. 


Diagnostic evaluation should be done informally and continuously. It is used to assess 
the strengths and needs of students and to make programme adjustments. It is used for 
diagnosis rather than grading. 

The Concept of Formative Assessment 

Diagnostic use of assessment to provide feedback to teachers and students over the 
course of instruction is called formative assessment. It stands in contrast to summative 
assessment, which generally takes place after a period of instruction and requires making a 
judgment about the learning that has occurred (e.g. by grading or scoring a test or paper). 
Formative evaluation should be conducted continuously throughout the course. It is used to 
improve instruction and learning and to keep both students and teachers aware of the course 
objectives and the students' progress in achieving those objectives. The results of formative 
evaluation are analyzed and used to focus the efforts of the teacher and students. 

Purpose and Benefits of Formative Assessment 

Black and Wiliam (1998b) define assessment broadly to include all activities that 
teachers and students undertake to get information that can be used diagnostically to alter 
teaching and learning. Under this definition, assessment encompasses teacher observation, 
classroom discussion, and analysis of student work, including homework and tests. 
Assessments become formative when the information is used to adapt teaching and learning 
to meet student needs. 

When teachers know how students are progressing and where they are having trouble, 
they can use this information to make necessary instructional adjustments, such as 
reteaching, trying alternative instructional approaches, or offering more opportunities for 
practice. These activities can lead to improved student success. 

Black and Wiliam (1998a) conducted an extensive research review of 250 journal 
articles and book chapters winnowed from a much larger pool to determine whether 
formative assessment raises academic standards in the classroom. They concluded that 
efforts to strengthen formative assessment produce significant learning gains as measured 
by comparing the average improvements in the test scores of the students involved in the 


innovation with the range of scores found for typical groups of students on the same tests. 
Effect sizes ranged between .4 and .7, with formative assessment apparently helping low- 
achieving students, including students with learning disabilities, even more than it helped 
other students (Black and Wiliam, 1998b). 

Feedback given as part of formative assessment helps learners become aware of any 
gaps that exist between their desired goal and their current knowledge, understanding, or 
skill and guides them through actions necessary to obtain the goal (Ramaprasad, 1983; 
Sadler, 1989). The most helpful type of feedback on tests and homework provides specific 
comments about errors and specific suggestions for improvement and encourages students 
to focus their attention thoughtfully on the task rather than on simply getting the right answer 
(Bangert-Drowns, Kulick, & Morgan, 1991; Elawar & Corno, 1985). This type of feedback 
may be particularly helpful to lower achieving students because it emphasizes that students 
can improve as a result of effort rather than be doomed to low achievement due to some 
presumed lack of innate ability. Formative assessment helps support the expectation that all 
children can learn to high levels and counteracts the cycle in which students attribute poor 
performance to lack of ability and therefore become discouraged and unwilling to invest in 
further learning (Ames, 1992; Vispoel & Austin, 1995). 

While feedback generally originates from a teacher, learners can also play an important 
role in formative assessment through self-evaluation. Two experimental research studies 
have shown that students who understand the learning objectives and assessment criteria 
and have opportunities to reflect on their work show greater improvement than those who 
do not (Fontana & Fernandes, 1994; Frederikson & White, 1997). Students with learning 
disabilities who are taught to use self- monitoring strategies related to their understanding 
of reading and writing tasks also show performance gains (McCurdy & Shapiro, 1992; 
Sawyer, Graham, & Harris, 1992). 


The results of summative assessments are used to make some sort of judgment, such 
as to determine what grade a student will receive on a classroom assignment, measure 
programme effectiveness, or determine whether a school has made adequate yearly progress. 
Summative assessment, sometimes referred to as assessment of learning, typically 
documents how much learning has occurred at a point in time; its purpose is to measure the 
level of student, school, or programme success. 

Formative assessment, on the other hand, delivers information during the instructional 
process, before the summative assessment. Both the teacher and the student use formative 
assessment results to make decisions about what actions to take to promote further learning. 
It is an ongoing, dynamic process that involves far more than frequent testing, and 
measurement of student learning is just one of its components. Even though assessments 
will continue to be labelled formative or summative, how the results are used is what 
determines whether the assessment is formative or summative. 


Summative Assessment Used in Formative Ways 

Summative evaluation occurs at the end of a unit or programme. It is used with formative 
evaluation to determine student achievement and programme effectiveness. Summative 
evaluation should form only part of students' grades or marks. An appropriate balance of 
diagnostic, formative, and summative evaluation should be used 

Teachers also select or develop their own summative assessments — those that count 
for a grade or a score. When teachers know what specific learning target each question or 
task on their test measures, they can use the results to select and reteach portions of the 
curriculum that students haven't yet mastered. Carefully designed common assessments 
can be used this way as well. 

Students, too, can use summative test results to make decisions about further study. If 
the assessment items are explicitly matched to the intended learning targets, teachers can 
guide students in examining their right and wrong answers in order to answer questions 
such as these: 

• What are my strengths relative to the standards? 

• What have I seen myself improve at? 

• Where are my areas of weakness? 

• Where didn't I perform as desired, and how might I make those answers better? 

• What do these results mean for the next steps in my learning, and how should I prepare 
for that improvement? 

For students to make maximum use of these questions to guide further study, however, 
teachers must plan and allow time for students to learn the knowledge and skills they missed 
on the summative assessment and to retake the assessment. Lack of time for such learning 
is one of the biggest hindrances to formatively using summative classroom assessments. 

Distinct benefits of Assessment for Learning 

Although all formative assessment practices have the potential to increase student 
learning, assessment for learning in the classroom offers a number of distinct benefits: 

• The timeliness of results enables teachers to adjust instruction quickly, while learning is 
in progress. 

• The students who are assessed are the ones who benefit from the adjustments. 

• The students can use the results to adjust and improve their own learning. 

When we try to teacher-proof the assessment process by providing a steady diet of 
ready-made external tests, we lose these advantages. Such tests cannot substitute for the 
day-to-day level of formative assessment that only assessment- literate teachers are able to 
conduct. The greatest value in formative assessment lies in teachers and students making 
use of results to improve real-time teaching and learning at every turn. 

Examples of Formative Assessment 

Black and Wiliam (1998b) encourage teachers to use questioning and classroom 
discussion as an opportunity to increase their students' knowledge and improve understanding. 


They caution, however, that teachers need to make sure to ask thoughtful, reflective questions 
rather than simple, factual ones and then give students adequate time to respond. In order to 
involve everyone, they suggest strategies such as the following: 

• Invite students to discuss their thinking about a question or topic in pairs or small groups, 
then ask a representative to share the thinking with the larger group (sometimes called 
think-pair- share) . 

• Present several possible answers to a question, then ask students to vote on them. 

• Ask all students to write down an answer, then read a selected few out loud. 

Teachers might also assess students' understanding in the following ways: 

• Have students write their understanding of vocabulary or concepts before and after 

• Ask students to summarize the main ideas they've taken from a lecture, discussion, or 
assigned reading. 

• Have students complete a few problems or questions at the end of instruction and check 

• Interview students individually or in groups about their thinking as they solve problems. 

• Assign brief, in-class writing assignments (e.g. , "Why is this person or event representative 
of this time period in history?) 

• In addition to these classroom techniques, tests and homework can be used formatively if 
teachers analyze where students are in their learning and provide specific, focused feedback 
regarding performance and ways to improve it. 

Language Learning Portfolios 

Portfolios, or collections of student work, may also be used formatively if students 
and teachers annotate the entries and observe growth over time and practice (Duschl & 
Gitomer, 1997). 

Evaluating Portfolios 

English language portfolios can be an effective way for students, teachers, and parents 
to observe student progress over a period of time. Because they are purposeful collections 
of student work, portfolios can serve as the basis for evaluation of student effort, progress, 
and achievements in English language learning. Aterm-end portfolio, assembled a few weeks 
before a reporting period, can include not only selected written products but also audiotapes 
of discussions, readings, and interviews; videotapes of oral presentations and debates; and 
visuals such as posters, graphics, and photographs from the term. An end-of-year portfolio 
can illustrate progress and achievement in a course. A multi-year portfolio can act as a 
showcase of the student's best work from several courses and over time. 

Students should understand the criteria for what to include in their portfolios and how 
to make the selection. Consideration might be given to the following: 


• What kind of portfolio will the students compile — exemplary, process, or some 

• What period of time will the portfolio cover? 

• How will it be evaluated? 

• How will it foster student ownership? 

• How will it encourage the students to reflect on their work and growth? 

A language learning portfolio can be housed in a three-ring binder or folder and 
might include: 

• a table of contents 

• a statement of the student's goals or a letter from the student explaining why each item 
was selected for inclusion 

• items that represent the student' s understanding and achievement of the English language 
learning objectives (e.g., journals, a sample of written work in all its stages, notes, research, 
reading log), chosen by the student in some cases and required by the teacher in others 
(e.g., a particular assignment or a representative piece of writing) 

• a student self-assessment that includes an assessment of the portfolio. 

The portfolio product is important but the process of assembling an English language 
learning portfolio is just as important. It gives students ownership and the overall "big picture" 
of their progress. 


A. Imagine that your beginning level class is completing a unit about 'Pastimes: what 
you like/don't like to do.' Look at the list of evaluations below and consider: 

1 . What information will you gather from the item? 

2. Is this information useful? 

3. For what purpose(s)? 

4. Matching a list of pastimes to the appropriate pictures of the activity. 

5. Labelling pictures of various activities. 

6. Filling in the blank with the correct form of the verb to say what various people 
like/don't like to do. 

7 . Listening to someone name an activity and identifying the picture of the activity 
that is named. 

8. Choosing the correct response from three or four choices (multiple choice) 

9. Chapter test - written 

10. Rehearsed dialogue or skit 

B. If you limit your evaluations to the ones listed above, will you know if your students 
can discuss with others and write about their pastimes? What else would you have to 


do to make sure that your students could successfully communicate with others about 
their favourite/least favourite pastimes? 

C. Now think about the difference between recalling information and applying information. 
If students can recall information (a list of vocabulary words, the endings for regular 
verbs), it does not mean that they can apply the information to communicate their 
ideas and understand others' ideas successfully. To gain a complete picture of what 
students know and are able to do, how must you design your assessments? How will 
this affect your instruction? 

Suggested Evaluation Procedure 

To ensure the principles of student evaluation are met, teachers may consider the 
following suggestions. 

1 . Review the objectives for the course. Determine what content, processes, and products 
will be emphasized in the course and in specific units. 

2. Next, determine what strategies will be used to assess the content, processes, and 

Assessment strategies for a particular course might include: 

Speaking and Listening 

Conversation Checklist 
Discussion — Peer Assessment 
Oral Interpretation Assessment 
Interview Assessment 
Panel Discussion Assessment 
Role Playing Assessment 
Choral Reading Assessment 
Listening Self-assessment 
Listening Behaviour Checklist 

Writing and Reading 

Discussion on writing 

Writing Process Checklist 

Reading Log Holistic Scale 

Self-assessment for Reading Strategies 

Writing Folder Self-assessment 

Writing Rubric 

Response Journal Assessment 

Resume and Covering Letter Criteria 

Analytic Scoring Criteria 

Unit-end Test 



3. Consider how the expectations, assessment and evaluation strategies, and grading will 
be shared with and communicated to students, parents, and administrators. A handout 
such as the one on the following page might be shared with students at the beginning of 
an academic year. 

4. Translate the assessment strategies into a grade. A form such as the Sample Assessment 
and Evaluation Summary that accompanies the sample handout on the following page 
might be used. 

Error Analysis 

Incorrect forms used by second language learners in their attempts to express 
themselves in that language are usually called errors. Linguists have defined errors variously 
as breaches of the code or deviations from the norm. An examination of learner's errors 
often points to inadequate understanding of the target language rules as the basis of errors. 
Hence, the second definition of errors as 'deviations' from the norm seems to be more 
suitable. C.V.Taylor (1976) defines an error as "any deviation unacceptable to the majority 
of speakers of every major dialect of the given language". 

Errors are deviations which reveal the learner's underlying knowledge of the language 
to-date. When a second language learner's attention is drawn to an error, he may, in his 
effort to correct it, go on to make another error. This would clearly show that he has not 
internalized the rules of the target language, even though he may know them explicitly. 
Thus, an analysis of errors may have to be a comparative exercise, a comparison between 
the learner's interlanguage code and the target language code. 

Errors may arise in reception or understanding of what is spoken or written in the 
target language and in production, when the learner attempts to express himself in the target 
language through speech or writing. It is, however, the latter that we most readily notice. 

Error analysis is a field of study recently developed within applied linguistics, and is 
of immense interest to linguists as well as teachers. It involves (1) the identification of 
actual errors, (2) the description of errors in linguistic terms, (3) the explanation of some 
of the probable sources of errors, and may or may not involve therapy, i.e., a linguistic 
evaluation and the application of the results to teaching methods, syllabus design and material 
production. Since explanation of errors, among other things, can involve a study of the 
differences between the mother tongue and the target language (i.e. interlingual interference), 
a contrastive analysis - as understood by its weak claim that it is an attempt "to explain 
already discovered deviations can be considered to be a necessary and explanatory 
complement to error analysis" (S.Johnsson, 1973). The analysis of errors can also be 
made by reference to pedagogical, sociological and psychological factors. "Although the 
study of errors is a natural starting point, the final analysis should include linguistic 
performance as a whole, not just deviations." Hence 'performance analysis' would seem a 
more appropriate name than 'error analysis' . Error analysis is thus a systematic investigation 
of the language, i.e. the interlanguage of the second language learner. It is, to quote Corder 
(1981, p. 29) a "clinical approach to the study of the learner's language." 


Errors caused by the learner's inability to recall 

i. Use of conceptually related terms: Unable to recall a word needed in a given context, 
the learner tends to use another conceptually related word which appears to suit his 
communicative need. Thus when one writes ," I saw a education in the beautician" , he 
seems to be thinking of the 'career' of a beautician, which logically includes training 
and education for the career. 


1 . We went to room (the cinema hall) 

2. India is a big city (country) 

3. I wanted to go to chennai by flight (by air). 

4. India Gate has been refurnished 

(re done /redecorated/repainted/renovated). 

ii. Use of paraphrase: Sometimes, inability to recall may lead the learner to explain the 
underlying ideas paraphrasically as in 

1 . here and there (everywhere) 

2. girls give (tie) rakhi to their brothers. 

3. I was sitting next to a mam woman (eunach) in the bus 

iii. Coinage of new terms: Sometimes the learners coin their own words on the pattern of 
the target language words which they are unable to remember exactly. Some examples 
of such coinage are given below: 

1 . All my teachers and friend congreal looked (congratulated) me. 

2. My luggage was screeted (scattered) on the platform. 

3. I wish that principal take interest in students not in money and sticked (was strict 
with) their teachers. 

Errors caused by confusion between formally similar items 

Errors may arise from formal similarity between words and morphemes. Due to his 
inadequate control over the target language the learner is easily confused between items of 
that language which are somehow similar in form but different in meaning or may appear to 
be similar to him. Unable to discriminate between them, the learner fails to use them in 
correct contexts. Examples of such errors are 

1. deprive (arrive) 

2. incident (accident) 

3. brought (bought) 

4. conserved (concerned) 

5. debating (defeating) 

Some of the errors resulting from inadequate practice in word formation rules are 
given below: 

1 . happy fully (happy / happily) 

2. weared (wore) 

3. beautician course (beautician's course) 


4. people life (people's life) 

5. India cultural (Indian culture) 

Errors caused by confusion between related items 

Sometimes words which are somehow related either because they belong to the same 
semantic field or because they have a common source or origin or some other common 
features - except formal similarity which has been accounted for separately - may cause 
confusion and uncertainty to the learner, and result in errors. The learner may know the 
stem form of a lexical item but may fail to apply correct affixes. 

1 . When I education (When I completed my education) 
The noun 'education' was wrongly put in the verb slot. 

2. They are celebrated in the festival. (They celebrate the festival). 
The learner is confused between active and passive forms. 

3 . People were enj oy (enj oy themselves/were j oy ous/were j oy ful) . 

The learner is confused between the noun, verb and adjectival forms derived from 


4. Were decoration (decorated) 

There is confusion between noun and verb forms. 

5. I service for ten years (I served there for ten years) 
There is confusion between noun and verb forms. 

Errors in the use of Verbs and Tenses 

Errors in this area appeared to be mostly an outcome of the learners' effort to grasp 
the target language in it own terms. They reflect the general characteristics of the rule 
learning (Richards, 1974, p. 174) and are intralingual, since the source of interference appears 
to be the target language itself. Prominent varieties of errors found in students writing are 
the following: 

a Absence of the main verb or an auxiliary. 
E.g. They finished the work just now. 

b. Use of an infinitive or auxiliary in place of a modal. 
E.g. You are to protect your country. 

c. Use of the present tense instead of the past tense. 
E.g. She lives in America last year. 

d. Use of the past tense instead of the present tense, 
e.g. She always liked sweets. 

e. Confusion between the simple and continuous forms. 
E.g. She works continuously today from 10 a.m. 

f. Confusion between the simple and the perfect tenses. 
E.g. She finished the construction of her house recently. 

g. Incorrect inflection of the verb for number and person. 
E.g. They goes to Kolkatta. 


Confusion between the simple and the perfect tenses 

Included in this class of errors are those caused by confusion between the simple past 
and the past perfect, the simple past and the present perfect, the continuous and the perfect 
continuous, the present perfect and the simple present. Confusions between these forms 
appear to result from an incomplete learning of rules leading the learners to hypothesize 
false concepts related to them. 

1 . I has completed the beautician's course 

2. The people has whitewashed his houses. 

Verbs incorrectly inflected for number and person 

This category includes errors related to subject-verb agreement such as: 

1. the use of plural verb with singular subject - she love, he earn. 

2. the use of singular verb with plural subject - We lives. 

3. verb in the third person used with first or second person subject - / likes, where was 

Remedial Steps Suggested 

1 . Teaching of English should be done through the direct method and not through translation 
into the mother tongue. This practice of teaching should be followed from the beginning, 
when the second language is first introduced to the students. Dependence on the mother 
tongue may lead to increased interference from it. 

2. Possibility of confusion between similar or related items in the target language should 
be minimized by selecting non- synonymous contexts for their presentation. Language 
exercises should be so framed as to activate rule learning. Hence mechanical drilling 
exercises should be avoided 

3 . Course designers should keep in mind the specific social function of the target language 
while selecting the contents of a course. 

4. The learner should be the focus of teaching. Hence, his activities, social roles and 
relationships, social situations in which he may need to use the second language should 
be the focus of a second language course, so that it may have a functional value for the 
learner. This would make learning highly motivated. 

Effective communication rather than proficiency in rules of grammar should be the focus 
of teaching. 


1 . Study the socio-economic or non-lingual factors influencing language learning in 
some schools around your institute. 

2. Conduct a survey of teachers of English of some Elementary Schools around your 
institute and their educational background and aptitude for teaching English at the 
school stage where the foundations of second language are laid. 



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In the modern world, language resources play a vital role in shaping and moulding the 
classroom interaction and classroom management. Every school should have a resource 

centre where all the teaching, learning and self- 
learning materials are available. A resource 
centre may have a language lab, a library and a 
wide assortment of audio and video materials. 
Language learning is now accepted by linguists 
as being a habit forming process. Habits are 
formed by repetition. Tedium is avoided by 
presenting the same concepts to the children 
in a variety of situations and contexts by visual 
and oral methods. 

Specific Objectives 

• To enable students to use language 

• To enable students to know what a 
language lab is and how to use it. 

• To make students understand the use of 
newspapers in the classroom for 
language skills' development. 

• To enable students to acquire the skill 
of using sketches in teaching. 

• To expose students to English through 
radio, TV or internet and to enable them 
to use it productively for acquiring 
language skills. 

• To enable students to use ICT for 
teaching English. 

Materials for classroom use 

These can be paper-bag puppets, glove- 
puppets, hand-puppets or finger-puppets. In 
addition to the actual puppets a simple 'stage' 
is very useful if you want to perform dialogues 
and skits. 

Class mascot 

Teddy bear or any local animal like a dog or a cat can be a class mascot, or you might 
have special puppets or something of local significance. 

Paper dolls 

These are very useful for teaching, but have quite a short life and have to be regularly 

English corner 

Pupils should be encouraged to collect anything which is in any way connected with 
the English-speaking world. 

Picture cards 

These can be drawings or cut-outs from magazines, or perhaps photos. Once you've 
sorted them out for size, put them into themes or subject areas like 'people', 'places', 
'food', etc. 



Easy readers and children's 
books in English would be a 
real investment for the language 
learner, and separate places 
have to be allotted to keep the 
readers in. 

Word I Sentence cards 

Word cards are useful for displays and for work on the flannel graph. If you want to get 
full use of your collection, you should work out a system of classification to be used in 
combination to teach vocabulary, phrases, clauses and sentence patterns effectively. 


Your calendar should show the date, birthdays and 
special days. 


Very simple clocks with movable hands are invaluable 
in the language classroom, not only for telling the time, 
but also for setting a scene in a skit and changing time 
now and then. They can be used for interactive tasks or for 
individual practice tasks. 

Weather Chart 

A weather chart can be prepared like a clock with one hand only and pictures of rainy 
day, cloudy day, hot day, windy day, etc. could represented on the dial in the place of the 

Displaying the books 

Put the books on low open shelves or in clearly marked boxes in your English corner. 
You might want to put new books or popular ones on low tables. Or you might put the books 
in book shelves. You should make sure that the children are physically able to reach them. 

Borrowing cards 

Have a system in which you know who has each book and how long he or she has had it. 
You might have a large card inside each book, and when the pupil borrows it he or she writes 
his or her name and the date on the card and puts the card in the space provided for in the 
book. This not only lets you see who has the book, but also tells you how popular the book 


Radio and Television 

Radio and Television can play a vital role in making classroom learning more interesting 
and joyful. The teachers have to equip themselves with the skills of selecting the right 
programme, preparing the students for the programme and organising the classroom. Apart 
from making changes in the seating arrangements during the programme they should give 
follow-up activities based on the programme. 


In this world of computers a resource centre will be incomplete without a computer. 
A teacher has to know the basic operation of computers because it is one of the best tools 
for improving the communication skills of the teacher and the students. 



You should have a map of the world or a globe 
in the classroom. A map of your local area is also 
useful, especially if it clearly shows the rivers, 
mountains, etc. 

Wall charts 

There are a lots of wall charts available in the 
market which are specially made for the language 
classroom. Be on the lookout for charts for other 
subjects too, especially if you are going to do team 
work or take part in projects working across the 


Materials to collect 

Children find all sorts of uses for 
materials which might otherwise be 
thrown away. These are things which 
can be used in making collages, 
creating puppets, decorating pictures, 
telling stories, counting, acting, 
miming, etc. You can collect: cartons, 
assorted ribbons, old cards, 
postcards, cotton reels, all sorts of 
paper - tissue paper, old wrapping 
paper, wallpaper - stamps, coins, 
buttons, strings, jars, empty packets 
of all sorts, bits of material, etc. 

There are endless uses for toys in the 
language classroom. They also help in connecting 
the child's world inside the classroom to what is happening outside the classroom. 

Building blocks 

Building blocks will make wonderful teaching and learning aids and they can be made 
from inexpensive wooden or plastic materials. They are so versatile. Collect shoe boxes 
and all other sorts of boxes to make models. 

Cassette recorders 

You should have in every classroom at least one cassette recorder which can record 
students' talk . There are reasonably cheap cassette recorders in the market which have 
built-in microphones. Remember also to have blank cassettes on store for the recording. 

Overhead projector 

There is little doubt that presenting materials on the overhead projector allows you to 
face the children all the time and provides the children with a common focus of attention. 
You can come back to the same material whenever you want to and you can use the same 
material with different classes. 


Transparencies could be useful for overhead projector presentations. They should be 
kept in special plastic covers or frames and then put into a file. 


Picture collection or photos of students' with their family members could help students 
talk about their families. Albums consisting of photos taken on different events could help 
students discuss various issues freely. 


Learners ' Profile 

Each student can have a compilation of his own poems, travelogues or visits to 
interesting places. He can record his reflections and display them in the resource centre 
for others to read. 


1. Can you add any suggestions to the list of materials which you and your pupils can 
make to use in the English lessons? 

2. What else would you add to the list of things that you collect for a resource centre? 



Language is central to human experience allowing communication with self and others. 
It guides the construction of reality. Games provide an interesting way of learning any 
language. It develops self confidence and skills of reading, writing, listening and speaking. 
Successful manipulation of games in the classroom goes a long way in improving the 
communication skills of students. Games can be used in many different settings. At the 
classroom level the games can be used to reinforce and support the teaching and learning of 
the language. There is no doubt that it also develops social skills in children. Skilled teachers 
determine the quality of games to be used in the classroom. 

Oral game: 

The class register can be used to develop the 
speaking skills of the students. 

Task 1: 

The teacher can pick out a few names from the 
class register and ask, for instance - 

Teacher: Is Kumar here? 

Kumar : Yes I am here. 

Teacher : Where are you, Shyam? Put up your hand. 
Oh! There you are. 

Teacher: Is Reshma here? 

Class : No, sir. 

Teacher : She was here yesterday, wasn't she? 

Mala : Yes, sir, she was. 

Teacher: Where is she today, Reena? 

Reena : She is at home in bed, sir. 

Meaningful language learning will take place if the situation is exploited well. 

Some More Hints 

A good game, like a 
good recipe, can be 
dressed up to fit any 
occasion. Once you find 
a format appealing to 
your group, play it for all its worth. 
Change it to fit the subject, the 
season, or the class mood. If you 
are creative with your games, your 
children soon will be. You will find 
them suggesting changes which will 
make the game more exciting or 
more appropriate to their current 


Rules of the Game 

Anyone who does not follow the 
rules is immediately disqualified. 

A point is taken from any team 
that is unduly noisy 

A point is taken from any team 
that displays poor sportsmanship 
to another team or to any of its 
own members. 

Task 2: Learning Area 

Grammar (Questioning) 

All but two of the players join hands and form a circle (ring). One of the two (Ramu) 
is blind- folded, and both are in the centre. Ramu says, "Somu, where are you?" "Here I am," 
says Somu but at once moves away silently. Ramu has to catch Somu by listening to his 
voice, and therefore he keeps on asking, "Somu, where are you?" Somu must answer every 
time but he cannot leave the ring. He can duck and dodge as much as he likes to avoid being 
touched by Ramu. When he is caught, Somu takes the place of Ramu and Ramu is substituted 
by someone else from the ring. 

Task 3: Listening 

The same or different! 

This game can be played with sound words and 
sentences. Here are rough indications of several kinds 
of procedures. 

The teacher says two sentences and pupils have 
to judge whether they are the same or different. 


Teacher: Throw away the pill, please. Throw away the 
peal, please. Are they all the same? I will 
repeat them once more. The teacher repeats them and points out to Rajan - 

Rajan : The second sentence is different from the first one. 

And so on. Sometimes the teacher will give the sentences in pairs and sometimes in threes 
or fours and they may be identical or different. 

Task 4: Getting to know each other 


In pairs, students find different ways of comparing themselves with each other, and write 
down or simply say the appropriate sentences. 

You are taller than I am. 

Ram has longer hair than I have. 

James is older than Raheem. 

As a follow-up, share some of the things participants have found out with the rest of the 

Task 5: English words in our languages 

Study of cognates or loan words from English in the students' mother tongue. 


In pairs of small groups the students think of as many words as they can in two minutes 
that they know were originally English but are commonly used in their own language. Write 


up all the words on the board. Alternatively do the activity as a competition and see which 
group has the maximum number of words. 

Task 6: Vocabulary review 


Ask about ten students to stand up at the front of the class. Ask them to arrange 
themselves in the alphabetical order of their names. When they are in order, they should 
each state their name in a complete sentence. They could also say the names of all the other 
students in the line. 


My name is . His name is 

The students who are still in their seats can take part by commenting on the correctness 
of what the students at the front are doing and saying. 


The same students or another group can continue this type of ordering activity in the 
following ways: 

• Standing in order of their birthdays through the year if this is culturally important for the 
students. They should then give their birthday dates in turn. 

e.g.: I was born on Tuesday, the 12 th of March 2002/ My birthday is on the 12 th of March. 

• Standing in the alphabetical order of their fathers' names, the streets they come from, or 
the towns or villages they come from. 

e.g.: My family is from Madurai. My father's name is 

• Standing in the order of the distance they travel to come to school / the class, 
e.g.: I travel 5 kilometers to reach the school. 

• Standing in the order of the time at which they get up or go to bed. 

e.g.: I wake up at 6o'clock in the morning. I go to bed at 9 o'clock at night. 

Task 7: Imaginary classroom 

Describing a room; use of prepositions. 


Tell the students to imagine that the room is absolutely empty with no furniture, 
no people, nothing. They have to create their ideal classroom by suggesting how to 
refurnish it. 


There is a thick soft wall-to-wall carpet on the floor. 
There is a television in the corner, with the video player. 

Task 8: Composing simple grammatical utterances 

Describing a picture 



Select a picture from a magazine or poster of your own. 


The students look at the picture and say things about it; you can give directions that 
these must be in the form of complete, grammatical sentences, or simply accept shorter 
utterances. For each acceptance write a tick on the board. How many sentences can the 
class think of in two minutes? Or can they find at least 20 or 30 sentences? 

Write the more interesting ones on the board. 

Task 9: Describing and guessing 

Seeing pictures in your mind. 
Who, where and what? 


Describe an object in the classroom, and at the end of the description ask, 'What is it?' 
Follow this with a description of a person who is known to the students. They must try to 
identify what or who you have described. 

Teacher : It has got two doors; it's green and we keep books in it. 
Student : The cupboard. 

Teacher : She has long hair and is wearing a green skirt and she's sitting on the last bench. 
Student : Kala 

Once the activity is understood, individual students describe people, places or objects 
for the rest of the class to identify. 


1. How will you create games to improve the communication skills of children? 

2. How far are games useful in making teaching learning more effective? 

3. Create a game as a learning process for each of the following 
a Pronouns 

b. Enquiry and response (e.g. Do you know English? Yes , I do) 

c. Adjective- Adverb (e.g. quick-quickly, neat-neatly) 


Every day we are faced with the problem of communication, whether it is in our 
classroom or outside. Why is there so much difficulty in understanding the idea that is 
communicated? The person desiring to communicate has a mental picture of the ideas to 
communicate. He then translates that mental picture into a verbal picture. Very often this 
translation does not take place effectively. 

The essence of human interaction is language and communication. The world that our 
students will encounter as adults will be vastly different from the one we know today. The 
rapid development of telecommunications will make the ability to communicate in English 
a necessity. It is therefore necessary to provide the students with the right knowledge of the 
application of English to enable them to function optimally. 



At the end of the unit the students will 
be able to 

• Understand how to use a 
language lab effectively. 

• Use multimedia to develop the 
skills of speaking, listening, 
reading and writing. 

• Develop students ' confidence in 
using the language. 

What is a language lab? 

The language laboratory is an audio or audio- 
visual installation used as an aid in modern 
language teaching. The Language Laboratory is used 
for language tutorials and remedial English classes. 
The students are exposed to a variety of listening 
and speaking drills. This especially benefits 
students who are deficient in English and also aims 
at confidence-building for interviews and 
competitive examinations. 

Traditional System 

The 'traditional' language lab system 
generally comprised a master console (teacher position) which was electrically connected 
to a number of rows of student booths, typically containing a student tape recorder and a 
boom arm. The teacher console was usually fitted with master playback source equipment 
(tape recorder), some means of monitoring of each booth in the class via the teacher headset 
and an intercom facility offering two-way communication between the teacher and the student. 

All but the simplest or first generation laboratories allowed the teacher to remotely 
control the tape transport controls of the student booths (record, stop, rewind, etc) from 
the master desk. This facilitated easy distribution of the master programme material, which 
was often copied at high speed onto the student positions for later use by the students at 
their own pace. 

Once the master programme was transferred onto the student recorders, the teacher 
would hand over the control of the decks to the students. By pressing the record key in the 
booth, the student would simultaneously hear the playback of the programme whilst being 
able to record his or her voice in the pauses, using the microphone. 

New System 

In the new system the language lab is not only a resource centre but also the central 
focus of a school language department. This facility has a definite place in the school. 

The language lab provides for many different activities: the traditional exercises of 
the old "language lab" as well as the newer ones modern technology has provided us with — 
computers, video, electronic testing, etc. There are other activities which can also have a 
place in the language lab such as the reading of English periodicals, bulletin boards, language 
games and English clubs. The Language Laboratory sessions also include word games, 
quizzes, extemporary speaking, debates, skits, etc 

Organising a Language Lab 

Of prime importance is the day-to-day administration of the Language Resource 
Centre. Daily administrative tasks include setting up of the cassettes and/or audio and video 
tapes for classroom situation, tape preparation, editing and duplication. Audio and video 


Teacher's Role 

The teacher has to 

• develop software 

• make use of computer assisted 

• organise activities 

• prepare learning materials 

• maintain equipment 

• organise lab 

• provide task-based activities 

• interact with students 

• co-ordinate activities 

cassettes as well as software inventories must be 
updated frequently and lists of these inventories 
provided to the faculty and the students. Actual 
maintenance of the equipments: demagnetizing 
recording heads, routine cleaning of the 
equipment, and checking for malfunctions must 
be undertaken on a regular basis. 

Task-based lab activities 

The objective of task-based activities is to 
provide learners with opportunities to use English 
contextually, and to explore the language through 
situational activities. In this way, the language lab 
can serve as a valuable tool in the language learning 
and teaching process, for it provides opportunities 
for learning that cannot be duplicated in the 

A tool, however, is only as effective as its 
implementor, and thus the role of the teacher is 
central to the success of task-based activities. The aim of lab drills is to provide a mechanical 
means to free the teacher for other instructional activities. Task-based activities bring the 
teacher back into the lab. 

Characteristics of task-based activities 

There are three main characteristics of task-based activities. 

1 . First, they have a goal or purpose that requires the use of the target language, but is not 
itself centred on that language. 

Eg: Each student writes in his notebook and records on tape a story about an 
invented vocation. Students then listen to the stories and evaluate them in terms of 
which vocation they would like the most. 

The students' goal is to tell stories that interest and excite their peers. The focus is on 
the story rather than on the language itself; however, the means to the end is through 
effective communication in the target language. 

2. The second trait involves making use of the unique features of a language lab to create 
a learning environment that cannot be recreated in the regular classroom. Some 
classroom-based group activities can be improvised by adapting them to the language 

3. The third trait of a task-based activity is that it involves the student in a way that 
intrinsically motivates, and creates a desire to excel. Task-based activities can be 
designed to provide students with the opportunity to get motivated. 


Traditional Classroom versus Multimedia Lab: 

In a traditional classroom, the teacher provides the topic-specific situation for students 
to make use of language as much as they can. Since the traditional classroom is far removed 
from any similarities to the real life situation, the teacher has to tell students to use their 
imagination and place themselves in that situation. On the other hand the computer software 
used in the multimedia lab creates a virtual world that is very similar to the real world. It is 
a world that you can see and experience. 

Traditional Classroom 

Multimedia Lab 

Teaching Tools 

Chalk, blackboard, audio tapes 

Local computer network, video 
on demand, internet. 

Teaching materials 


Interactive computer software. 


Imaginative role-play 

Realistic computer- simulated 




Direct communication and more 

Indirect communication and less 




• Can a teacher create a modest language lab in the school using limited resources? 

• Have the students write a role play and record the same on a cassette ? 

• Does the language lab mean only audio and video tools? 



Material collection is an on-going process, 
but it is well worth devoting some time in 
collecting and filing specific categories of 
newspaper extracts (e.g. weather forecasts, short 
articles, advertisement, headings). 

Judicious use of newspaper in the classroom 
can play a significant role in motivating students 
to read. There are four key ways teachers can 
successfully use newspaper materials with 

1. Pre-activity preparation; 

2. Careful selection of materials; 

3. Careful design of tasks and 

4. Recycling materials. 


1 . To provide students practical and 
creative ideas to exploit all the 
different sections of newspapers. 

2. To enable others to meet the diverse 
needs and interests of their students, 
using newspaper materials. 

3 . To provide students purpo seful and 
valuable language practice through 
newspaper-based activity and tasks 
which develop listening, speaking, 
reading and writing skills. 

To instill in students a positive and 
comfortable attitude towards reading 


Pre-activity preparation 

Pre-activity preparation involves familiarising students with the content of the materials 
to be used and preparing students for any difficult language they contain, before they read 
them. It is important to remember that not all newspaper materials are difficult. Clearly, 
some texts are easier than others. 

This is particularly true in the case of short newspaper items such as news in brief 
articles, where only two or three words may need explaining to make the texts fully 
understandable. This can easily be achieved by teaching difficult vocabulary at the beginning 
of the activity. 

Selection of materials 

Newspapers provide a wide scope for exploring the possibilities of learning a language. 
Newspapers can be exploited on a regular basis to strengthen the skills of the students for: 

• Reinforcing grammatical terms 

• Reading with comprehension 

• Writing creatively 

• Improving knowledge of structure 

Newspapers have a lot of resources to be used in the classroom. In the hands of a 
resourceful teacher, such items as headlines, news columns, pictures in the newspaper, 
advertisement columns, business columns, etc can become sources for classroom activities 
and tasks. 

Generally speaking, many students can find it quite tiring and discouraging to have to 
read a long and perhaps complicated newspaper article from beginning to end. So it would 
be advisable to select the easier items from the newspapers. 

Design of tasks: 

There are plenty of simple activities you can design in the classroom just by using 
even old newspapers and magazines. Collect the newspapers and cut out suitable items 
such as pictures, advertisements and headlines and carry out the following activities: 

• Making negative sentences. 

• Framing questions for given statements. 

• Writing the other degrees of comparison for selected sentences. 

• Writing the indirect speech or direct speech sentences. 
Task 1: The press 

In groups, discuss these questions. 

> What are the main stories in the press these days? 

> Are there similar types of papers in your country? 

> Are newspapers free from government influence? 

> Do you think newspapers should be smaller? 


Task 2: Newspaper headlines 


Select a number of headlines from a newspaper and cut them into individual words. 
Use these to compile a sheet of headline words in a jumbled order, and make one copy of 
this sheet for each pair of students in the class. 

In class: 

Pair students, give each pair a copy of the sheet of words and tell your students that 
the words have all been taken from newspaper headlines. Deal with any problem related to 
vocabulary at this stage of the activity. 

Tell your students that they should try to use as many of these words as they can to 
make up sentences, but make it absolutely clear that they do not need to use all the words on 
the sheet. 

Explain that their sentences can be as long or as short as they wish, and tell them that 
they can add grammatical words (e.g. auxiliary verbs, linking words, pronouns and articles) 
which do not appear on the sheet to help them make their sentences grammatically correct. 

Tell your students that as they use a word, they should tick it on the sheet and not use 
that word again. They list all the sentences they make, adding the appropriate punctuation 
(e.g. full stops, commas, question marks). 

As each pair finishes, ask them to exchange their lists with one another to check the 
sentences they have produced. 

Finally, ask the pairs to read out their lists of sentences, and discuss their accuracy 
with the class. 

Task 3: 

Work in small groups. Write these newspaper headlines as full sentences. (Allocate 
a few headlines to each group). Continue the stories to make a complete news bulletin, 
e.g. Oil discovered in city centre - Massive reserves of crude oil were discovered in the 
city centre yesterday when builders started digging the foundations for a new office block. . . 

GanGes over 

flows Spn 

ad Mi 1 1 ed in hosPital 

Smoking to be ba nned 

Tr a pped gir I sa ved 


M an abducted by 
"alien s " 


i" ,r """'"^ 


Task 4: 

Work as pairs; write a headline of your own, if possible about a story in the news at the 
moment. Exchange it with the next pair and see if you can expand on the headline that is 
passed to you. They will be collected and read out as a news bulletin in the class. 

Task 5: 
Headline halves 

Matching halves of newspaper headlines 


Compile a list of eight to ten headlines, each of which should consist of six or more 
words. The meanings of the headlines should be transparent, i.e. there should be no word 
play or ambiguity. 

Paste the accompanying articles (without the headlines) onto a sheet of paper, 
numbering them for ease of reference. Deal with any vocabulary or language problems by 
adding a translation or an explanation and make one copy of this sheet for each student in 
the class. Keep the matching headlines for the final stage to check your students' answers. 

In class 

1 ) On the left-hand side of the board, write the beginnings of the headlines you have 
chosen. On the other side of the board, write the endings of these headlines, but in a 
jumbled order. Deal with any vocabulary or language problems at this stage of the 

2) Explain to your students that the headline endings on the right complete the beginnings 
on the left, but they are in a jumbled order. Tell them that they should try to find as 
many possible matching endings for each headline beginning as they can. Their complete 
headlines should have meaning, and they should form grammatically possible 

3) Begin the activity. When your students are ready, ask them to compare and discuss 
their complete headlines with a partner. 

4) Finally, tell your students the original (complete) headlines. 
Task 6: 

Look at the advertisement and answer 
the questions that follow. 

1 . Who has given the advertisement? 

2. What is the advertisement about? 

3. Who can apply for the 

4. Where can you get the application 

5. Where is NCERT located? 

Life Eternal Muough teaming 


General Publications 

Appointment of Distributors for NCERT Publications (other than 
textbooks) in different States/UTs in India 

NCERT wishes to appoint Distributors for its General Publications 
which Include Supplementary Readers, Teacher's Guides, Research 
Monographs and 3ooks on Vocational Courses. Dedicated booksellers 
with sound financial background and in a position to promote NCERTs 
Genera! Publications may apply on the prescribed application form. 
For application font and other details, refer tc NCERT 
website- (see thelinsANNOUNCEMENTSrrertder). 

Sri Aurobindo Maro, Now Dalhi-11 016, WWW.nCert.niC.In 



Project 1: 

Compare two English newspapers circulated in your locality and state your 
observations of the following: 


Task 1: 

Look at the table. Fill in the required details about the two newspapers. Compare the 
details and discuss the similarities and differences in coverage and use of language. 

The Hindu 

Indian Express/Deccan Chronicle 







Regional News 

State news 

International News 

Business Review 

Sports News 

Feature Article 


Readers' Letters 

Classified Ads 

Radio and TV Programmes 

Bus and Train Timings. 

Weather Forecasts 

Arts & Entertainment 



Task 2: 

Relate the following to the appropriate classifications given in the table, 

1. Capricorn: Horoscope 
Although you could be having problems at work this week, 

your social life has never been better. 

2. Sir, with reference to your report on drop-out rate in the schools, 

I wish to point out that 

3 . Tonight temperature will drop to around 3 ° 

4. For sale 1992 Ford 

5. A ten year old girl was in hospital after 

6. Obama is elected President of the USA 

Project 2: 

What, who, where, when, how, why? 

Write the following questions on the board and explain to your students that the 
introductory paragraph of a newspaper article will usually answer several of these questions: 

What happened? 
Who did it involve? 
Where did it happen? 
When did it happen? 
How did it happen? 
Why did it happen? 

Compile a sheet with the introductory (i.e. the first) paragraph plus the headline from several 
'hard news' articles - news of the day which deals with quotations and factual details, and 
which contains little description, journalistic comment or analysis. Number each paragraph 
for ease of reference and make one copy of this sheet for each student in the class. 

Does the introductory paragraph of the newspaper clippings answer all the questions? 
Discuss in groups. 

What questions are answered by the rest of the paragraph? 

Project 3: 

Finding factual information in introductory paragraphs to articles 

Find two articles from different newspapers about the same story and bring them into 
the class. In groups, make notes about the differences in the coverage of the story. 

Project 4: 

Look at the newspaper and find an advertisement you like and one you don't. 

Work in small groups and explain why you like or dislike them. Try to identify the 
persuasive techniques used by advertisers. As a group, choose your favourite advertisement. 


Project 5: 

What does the first paragraph of the following newspaper clipping talk about? 
How will you rephrase the heading? 

Researchers discover elusive frog 

SYDNEY; A tiny frog Epeciea 
liiuughl by many experts to 
hfr'Wrtinctbas been reduce- 

■vexed five and well in a re- 
mote area of Australia's 
'.l-opica! north, researchers 
said ob Thursday. 

The 40 mm -long Ar- 
moured Mist frog had not 
lieen seen ilnce 19W, and 
many experts assumed it had 
heen wiped oat by a devas- 
tating Fungus that si ruck 
northern Quei'i isi-and Stale. 

i low they did J I 

Sut two month* ago, a doc- 
toral student at James Cook 
t'niversfty in T«wr»viUe con- 
ducting rcueorch on another 
frog species in Queensland 
stumbled across what ap- 
puii/ed tu he several Ar- 
moured Mis! frogs in a creek, 
said Hrofe-ssor Ross Alford. 
lie ad i»f a research team on 
•hreatervd frogs. 

Conrad ) loskin, a research- 
er ^t The Australian National 

University in Canberra «ho 
has been studhdttg the 'qrrolu- 
tionary biology of north 
Queensland frogs for the pest 
10 years, condugtejJ DNA 
tests on ti» lie Eaajjwes from 
the frogs ami detettnirted 
they were the elusive Ai- 

Professor Aiford'a group 
got the results on Wednesday. 
A spokeswwman for the 
Queensland Environmental 
Protection Agency also con- 
firmed the findings. 

"A lot of u* were starting to 
believe it had gone extinct, bis 
to discover it now is amax- 
big." Mr. HosMn said. "It 
mean* some of the other spe- 
cies that are missing could 
potentially just be hidden 
away along some of the 
streams up there." 

Craig Franklin, a Professor 
of Zoology at The University 
of Queensland who studies 
troga. said the Mlstfrog's re- 
discovery was exciting, "it's 

very significant" he said. 
"We've lost so many frog spe- 
ctes in Australia... Hopefully 
it's a population that's mak- 
ing a comeback." 

The light brown frog*, with 
dark brown spots, congregate 
in ares* wiih fast-Sowing wa- 
ter. So fcr, between 30 and 40 
have been found. 

The chyttid fungus wa;> 
blamed for decimating f^-'f. 
populations worldwide, in- 

cluding seven species in 
Queensland's tropics be- 
tween She late 1980s and early 

Armoured Mistfcogs had 
been classified- as critically 
endangered rather than ex- 
tinct, but most researches^ 
twlieved they had died out* 
front the disease. 

Most of the Armoured 
Miftfrogs that the group has 
found are infected with the 
fungus, but the disease does 
not appear to be making them 

Professor Alfurri and his 
team plan to study the crea- 
tures to try and determine 
how they managed to coexist 
with the fungus, in a bid to aid 
future conservation and man- 
agement of vulnerable fmfts. 

On the Net, die James Cook 
University is at http:/.' and" the 
Australian National Universi- 
ty at 
itidex.php - AP 

List out the nouns , adjectives and prepositions used in the news item. e.g. 







Project 6: 

Writing a news item 

Part 1: 

Encouraging children to read and write in ways that allow them to make sense of real language 
in real contexts is more likely to help them develop the skills necessary to become fluent 
readers and writers. Creation of a class newspaper provides such a real context, and thus 
makes an excellent choice as the basis for a project designed with this goal in mind. 


Newspaper Information Hunt 


Teachers need to collect enough newspapers 
for students to work in pairs. Before assigning 
the newspaper information hunt, make a model of 
what students should do in this activity. Circle and 
label all listed items in student directions for the 
hunt in red marker. 

Bulletin Board 

Reading for meaning 

Divide a bulletin board into ten 
sections, and label each section with 
one of the criteria for selecting news 
stories. Ask students to find and cut 
out examples of each type of news 
story, and then have them attach each 
story to the correct section of the 
bulletin board. 

Teaching Steps: 

Step 1. Divide students into pairs. Give each pair 
a newspaper and two markers. 

Step 2. Tell students that they have to skim and scan their newspapers for basic news writing 
techniques. Explain the term lead, headline, byline, quote, news story, editorial and 

Step 3. Allow time for students to work in the class to complete the information hunt. Ask 
each pair to share a few interesting items from their search. 

Directions for Students 

With a partner, find five examples of each of the following techniques in your 
newspaper. Circle and label each with a marker. 

• Lead : Usually one sentence that tells who, what where, when, why and how. 

It is found at the beginning of the story. 
The title of the story 
The author of the story 

Exactly what someone said and is in quotation marks 
A writer gives his or her opinion about a subject 
An article or ad that is paid for by the company 

After the hunt is complete, move on to part two of this lesson where students will 
write a news story. 

Part 2 

Teaching basic news writing 

Directions for students: 

1. Choose a news-worthy topic. Example topics: dress code, school lunch, sports, clubs, 
after school activities, new course offerings, student teachers, pep assemblies, recycling 
programmes, etc. 

2. Choose two to three people to be interviewed to find out information about the topic. 

3. Write questions for these people to make the interview organised and efficient. Ask 
the following types of questions: Who, what, where, when, why and How. 

• Headline 

• Byline 

• Quote 

• Editorial 

• Advertisement 


4. Take notes on what each person says. If the person has a strong opinion about a topic, 
ask him or her if you can include a quote in your story. Make sure you write down 
exactly what he or she says when it is an opinion or an unusual fact. 

5. Organise this information into a story. The most important information goes at the top 
of the story. The least important information goes at the end. This is called the inverted 

6. The first line of your story is called the lead. The lead should include as much of the 
following: who, what, where, when, why and how information. The lead should not be 
more than 30 words. It should grab the reader's attention and make a reader want to 
finish reading your story. 

7. Do not put in your own opinion in this story. If you want opinion in your story, it must 
be from a quote (something that someone said.) The information should be in quotation 
marks with the person's name after the quote. 

8. Paragraphs must be short in length. 

When the newsletter is complete with all the students' stories, give each student a copy. 
Parents will enjoy reading the class project and the students will love seeing their names in 

Recycling Materials: 

The materials prepared for the activities or tasks need not be thrown away after use. 
They can be preserved in a safe place for later use. They are of perennial value as far as 
using them as teaching learning materials is concerned. 


• Can newspapers be used to teach grammar? 

• How will you use a newspaper for teaching primary students? 


Chalk board is a basic, most widely used and versatile tool of instruction. Even in the 
modern age of television and teaching machines it remains as the most trusted and powerful 
companion of a teacher. Next to a teacher's personal visualization of the teaching matter is 
his verbal delivery of the same. This is always to be supported by a frame- work of visualized 
details to be displayed on the chalk board. A teacher need not be an artist to use the board 

Planning your blackboard work 

If you plan your blackboard work well in advance and include it as part of the lesson 
plan, much of the chaotic and untidy work on the blackboard can be avoided. Ideally the 
blackboard can be sectioned off into several areas. It can be divided into four convenient 
sections. Thus one part of the blackboard can be set apart for pictures, another part for 
writing tables and lists, another part for planned work and another part for unforeseen use. 


Planned work 


Tables, lists, etc. 

Unforeseen use 

The teacher has to erase the board before he/she leaves at the end of the class unless 
the contents on the board are absolutely necessary for follow up work or assignment. 

Techniques of Usage 

Keeping in view the varieties of chalk boards many techniques can be used. The teacher, 
by his careful selection, integration and use of the textual details of a subject matter can 
employ any one or combination of the following techniques in teaching. 

The Template Technique 

For regular use of symbols, diagrams and 
designs in science lessons, templates can be 
used. Templates are cut out of cardboard, 
wood or masonite. The template is held 
against the board and the outline is drawn with 
chalk. These can be stored conveniently or 
hung for a ready use. 

The Pattern Technique 

Detailed outlines of diagrams are punched on 
heavy tracing paper sheet. The punches are 
perforated with any sharp-edged pointed material 
like a nail. The pattern paper is held against 
the board and a dusty eraser is rubbed against 
the perforated section of the outline. This will 
make an outline of chalk dust stick to the board. 
By free-hand drawings along these dots the basic 
pattern can be completed. 

The Magnetic Board Technique 

This requires the use of steel chalk board and 
small pieces of magnet. Magnets help to fix 
symbols of light three-dimensional objects on 
the board which are progressively uncovered 
by a cloth curtain fixed at the top of the board. 

The Subject Matter Outlines Technique 

Description, procedures, processes and 
experiments can be detailed out step by step 
through properly worded summaries. Key 
words and expressions and rules of usage can 
be memorized and understood by focusing 
attention on important word and phrases. 
Key ideas can be conveyed through contrast 
by the use of coloured chalk. 


Low level black board refers to the three walls in class room painted black up to the level 
the children can reach. The children themselves can use it for writing, doing sums, drawing 
or any creative activity. 

It is the natural tendency of children to scribble. The children show a lot of interest in 
showing their innate talents by writing on the black board. They have a sense of fulfillment 
and achievement. Blackboard activity promotes healthy competition among children and in 
turn the tendency to excel. Low Level Blackboard goes a long way in improving the classroom 


How to improve students' 

The following hints might help 
improve students' participation. 

• Talk to the students as you are 
drawing and turn frequently to 
watch them. 

• Ask the students what to draw 
next and get them to help you. 

• Ask them what they think the 
picture is going to be. 

• Get them to talk about the things 
you draw. 

• Do not stand right in front of the 
blackboard blocking the 
students' view. 

performance of the children. There is plenty of 
scope for peer learning, peer correction, peer 
evaluation and self learning and self evaluation. 

Chalk sheets for teaching 

These are uniform pieces of sheets of paper 
painted black and joined together at one end with 
thin wooden strips. The sheets can be made of 
wrapping paper or craft paper of good quality, 
pastel paper, thin card, construction paper, etc. 


Take even pieces of wrapping paper of good 
quality. About six to ten even sheets are 
required.Select a fine variety of blackboard paint 
or some black flat varnish paint. Paint the smooth 
sides of these sheets evenly with a one inch or 
two inches wide brush. After these sheets get dried, 
these are to be bound at one end with thin pieces 
of wooden strips. 

Method of usage 

These sheets provide a very useful and handy tool for teaching. You can develop 
blackboard details, lesson summaries, and simple explanatory sketches on these sheets. 
Your ideas or concepts can be easily analyzed into different stages, each being depicted on 
one sheet. 

Compose the text and sketches on these sheets with coloured chalk or crayons. These 
details can be easily wiped clean with a piece of wet cloth. If preserved carefully, these can 
be used for a good number of times. 

Blackboard drawing 

Many teachers are reluctant to try their hand at blackboard. They say that they can't 
draw, without ever having tried. But simple stick figures are not beyond even the most 
hopeless amongst us; and with a little practice, every teacher can learn enough to draw 
simple pictures for language practice. 

Picture Composition can be made a lot more interesting by drawing the pictures on 
the blackboard rather than having them on specially prepared cards. 


A whiteboard (also known as a marker-board, dry-erase board, dry-wipe board or a 
pen-board) is a name for any glossy surface, most commonly coloured white, where non- 
permanent markings can be made. The popularity of whiteboards increased rapidly in the 
mid-1990s and they have become very common in many offices, meeting rooms, school 


classrooms, and other work environments. A special marker pen containing removable ink 
is used for writing on the whiteboard. 


• Whiteboard ink markings are less susceptible to external factors. Using markers does 
not generate the dust that comes from using and erasing chalk, allowing their use in areas 
containing dust-sensitive equipment. Some who are allergic to chalk or are asthmatic use 
whiteboards as an alternative. 

• A whiteboard can be used as the projecting medium for an overhead or video projector. 
This allows the person giving the presentation to fill in blanks, edit, underline and make 
comments by writing directly onto the whiteboard, which in turn shows through the 
projected image. 

• A dry erase marker is easier to hold and write with. In addition, marking on a whiteboard 
takes less time, effort, and pressure than marking on a chalkboard. 

• When compared to a chalkboard a whiteboard can have significantly more colours because 
markers have a greater range of colours than chalk. 


One of the most obvious advantages of the use 
of stick figures in language teaching is the 
possibility of illustrating a special teaching point 
by itself . A stick figure drawing can omit all 
distracting information and shows clearly , by 
itself, the particular word or phrase that is 

Types of stick-figure Drawing 

Stick-figure drawings can be very simple or 
elaborate. The type chosen depends on the use 
to be made of them; in practice the type will also 
depend on the time available to make them. 

Type 1 drawings are useful for rapid blackboard 
sketches during the lesson. Being simple they 
take less time to draw, and can be rubbed out and 
quickly replaced. 

To begin with simple drawings are the most useful for all purposes. As soon as some 
skill has been developed, more elaborate drawings should be attempted. 

For cueing words and providing 'Situations', on the other hand, the more elaborate 
drawings are needed. In such cases the blackboard, wall pictures and flash cards should be 
illustrated with Type 2 stick- figures. These should be drawn before the lesson starts. 

All sticks are composed of straight lines and curves. Skills can be increased rapidly 
by practice in drawing lines and curves many times, followed by simple shapes, and then 
complete figures. 



Look at the following sequence which can be developed for a picture composition 
lesson. Write a story based on the stick figures and hints given in the box: 

1 * * ^t > 

< y~H^> 


Words for the story 












1 . Can the blackboard be a substitute to the text book? 

2. What kind of blackboard sketches can be easily done in the classroom? 


An Overview 

Education is not limited to the classroom 
teaching rules alone. It is broad-based and 
multidimensional; it is life long, universal, free and 

Hence there is no end to learning and no 
frontier of learning. School is not the only 
institution of learning. In this age of science and 
technology importance of mass media cannot be 
overestimated. Radio andT.V. are the most powerful 
media at present. Both are complementary to one 

Component of Educational Technology: 

ET consists of all materials, media and 
methods used for optimization of learning. It 
comprises teaching aids like chalk sticks, books, 
journals, illustration, charts, posters etc. 



Educational Broadcasting 


• A means of motivation 

• A major component of non- 
formal educational system. 

• A direct instructional medium. 

• An enrichment of formal 
educational system. 

• A training component for 
teachers and supervisors. 

• A means of improving 
professional skills 

• A supplementary teaching 
medium Aid. 



TV is the most powerful medium of communication. It has revolutionized the method 
of teaching and learning. 

• It is a convenient and economical medium of reaching a large cross-section of population. 

• It combines the best of radio and motion pictures. 

• It helps overcome barriers to learning . 

Selecting the Programme 

The following guidelines will be helpful when selecting TV programmes. 

1. The programmes should fit comfortably into the class schedule. 

2. The teacher should know exactly what objectives she wants the telecast to cover. 

3. The telecast material should fall within the interest range and attention span of the 

4. The materials and equipment to carry out the lesson should be readily accessible. 

Organising TV Classes 

1 . The TV sets should be placed high enough for comfortable viewing. 

2. Picture quality should be checked before telecast. 

3 . The room should not be darkened. 

4. The set should be placed away from windows to reduce glare. 

5. The screen size determines the seating arrangement for proper viewing. 

6. Care should be taken to place students with poor vision in the more advantageous 

7. The difference in the heights of the student should be taken into account. 

Preparing Students for Television 

The amount of preparation for a lesson depends largely upon the type of programme 
and how it is to be used. However, it is important for the teacher to give the students any 
background information necessary and in keeping with the purpose of the lesson. 

Warming up Activities 

Task 1: Prime time 

(Ask the students which English programmes they are interested in. Elicit the following 
programmes by giving clues, e.g. It provides up-to- date news around the world. 

Discovery Channel, Animal Planet, BBC, CNN, SUN TV, SUN News, National Geographic, 
History Channel,ESPN,Ten Sports,Star Sports. 

If you know one of these programmes, describe it to another student who has never seen it. 
In groups, brainstorm a list often different kinds of programmes and then work on your list, 


to put the list in order from your most to least favourite. Compare your order with that of 
the group. (Elicit the genres and write them on the board. Here are some possibilities.) 

Current affairs, nature/wildlife, soap operas, sport, history, music, cookery, comedy, 
dramas, travel, talk shows, quizzes, weather forecast, gardening 

Task 2: Survey 

Each student is given a question. Students mingle and ask each other to answer the 
question given to them. This answers are recorded. 

Would you like to live without a TV? 

How many hours a week do you watch TV? 

How often do you watch English language programmes? 

Do you watch sports programmes? Which ones? 

What is your favourite TV programme? 

Do you watch nature programmes? 

Is there too much violence on TV? 

Do you watch the news every day? 

Take turns to read out your question and the result of your survey, e.g. I asked the class if 
there was more than one TV in their house. Two of them said there was - that's 20 per cent. 
One student had a TV in every room. 

During the Telecast 

The classroom teacher should do whatever is necessary to see to it that her children 
get the most out of the telecasts. The teacher clarifies points, answers questions, leads 
discussions, and gives individual help. It is the classroom teacher who decides what she 
expects her children to get out of the lessons. The final success of any television programme 
greatly depends upon the teacher's attitude. 

The teacher should: 

1 . Actively respond to the lesson. 

2. Record items to be clarified. 

3 . Recognize children who need additional help. 

4. Encourage children to respond to directions and questions. 

Follow-up Activities 

The teacher should use a variety of activities to follow up a lesson. Whether dealing 
with total groups, small groups, or individuals, each activity should have a definite purpose 
which expands the TV programme. The following is a sampling of various types of follow- 
up activities: 


• Writing stories, poems, letters. 

• Taking notes, making reports, outlines. 

• Articles for school paper. 

• Listing vocabulary. 

• Making a list of books related to the TV series. 


• Watch the news on TV tonight and make notes about the stories, sports and whether 
forecast. Turn them into headlines. In groups, compare your headlines. How similar are 

• Write about two programmes that you watch(or don't watch) on TV. Say what kind of 
programme it is and what you like and don't like about it using the items in the box. 



Chat Show 



Crime Stories 




Teleconferencing is the synchronous two-way connection of two or more locations 
through audio and video equipment as a method of extending classrooms to students at 
different locations. Of all the distance teaching technologies, teleconferencing is the most 
similar to classroom instruction. 


• Become familiar with the equipment and learn to operate it without assistance. 

• Run a test session with the location or locations that will be connecting to your classroom 
so you are sure that all of the remote sites have the right setup. 

• Compile the contact information for technical people at the remote location, just in case 
something goes wrong. 

• Prepare a teleconferencing etiquette summary for your students so that they learn not to 
tap their pens on the table, shuffle papers or place materials on top of the microphone, 
and know when they should mute their microphones or how you would like them to interact 
with the rest of the class. 

• Have a backup plan in case the technology fails. A good option is dialing into a speakerphone 
at the remote location so that you can continue your class without much of an interruption. 

• Go to the classroom 10 minutes early. 

Room Arrangement 

• If you are mainly presenting information to students through videoconferencing, then 
position the unit in a location where the camera can get the best picture of you and your 


• If you are planning any kind of class discussion, arrange the class in a triangular formation 
so that each party can see the other without much difficulty. 


• Let your students know the protocol for asking questions. Do you want them to interrupt 
you as you're speaking (with a question or a raised hand) or will you allow a certain time 
for questions? 

• Learn the names of your students and directly ask them questions that can be discussed. 

• Give the students seed questions to generate discussions in the class during a particular 
reading or case study. 

• Let students mute their microphones and have their own course-related discussion. 

• Small group discussion activities encourage students to discuss a topic and express their 
thoughts. They also give students a break from passively watching a presentation. 


• Before beginning a discussion, start with some quick ground rules such as "Let's start the 
conversation with the 'A' group, and then we'll move to 'B' group". As questions come 
up, write them down so that you're prepared for your turn. Select one moderator at each 
location. A moderator at your location can alert you to a question that comes up. The 
moderator's role should be rotated among students. 


Radio technology offers a unique way for teachers to integrate technology into the 
curriculum. Teachers can use radio programmes to reinforce listening, writing, and speaking 
skills. With a shortwave radio, teachers can provide students with an opportunity to hear the 
authentic language demonstrated by native speakers. Teachers without Internet connections 
will find radios an accessible technology for bringing the world to their students. 

Radio brings the outside world into the classroom making educational programmes 
more attractive and entertaining. Useful radio programmes on every aspect of life are 
available, making the medium particularly useful for content-based English language 
instruction. Teachers can now download the scripts of various listening passages, select any 
programme on the site of the radio channel (notably BBC), and connect the computer 
speakers to a tape recorder, using recording wire. Of course, the content shouldn't be used 
passively; students should be assigned genuine and relevant tasks to do while listening. 


On the blackboard, write a list of words related to the topic of the listening passage. 
Ask the students to guess what the passage will discuss. Give the students a script of an 
English language passage that they are about to hear delivered at a slow pace. The script 
should include spaces where words are missing. Below the script, provide definitions for 
the missing words. Ask the students to read the script and definitions. Tell them that as they 
listen to the recording, they are going to fill in the blanks in the script. 


While listening 

The students now listen to the passage with the aid of the script. Thus the vocabulary is 
explained through context as the students listen to the passage. After that, give the students 
a list of definitions for other words, but this time in random. Play the remainder of the 
programme without giving the students the benefit of a script and have them identify the 
words defined in the list. The absence of a script requires further concentration in order to 
recognize the words and match them with their corresponding definitions. 


To ensure that the students can use the words they just learned correctly in context, 
have them create sentences using the words. We can use the radio to make our teaching 
creative and interesting. We can design many types of activities based either on live or pre- 
recorded radio programmes . Radio is accessible to most schools, and has the great virtue 
of exposing students to authentic English spoken by native speakers. 


We live in the age of computers and there are growing demands on almost everyone, including 
the teacher, to become technologically literate. The internet is commonly referred to in it 
abbreviation form as 'Net' . It is also known as cyberspace or the information superhighway. 
It has been hyped as the most significant development in communication tools. 


• In small groups, imagine you are going to give a course 
on how to use the internet to a class of complete 
beginners. Before you start, you can explain the 
following vocabulary. 

• Ask the students to prepare notes on them. 

ISP (Internet Service Provider), password, to log on, 
virus, hacker, links, spam, to browse, to download, 
online, website, surf, bandwidth, worldwide web, 
home page, HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) 
Have them compare their notes with another group. 
Who has the clearest explanations? 

• In small groups, write a list of the top ten uses of the 
internet. Compare your lists. 

As a teacher and lifelong learner, one of the most 
powerful and rewarding instructional tools at your 
fingertips is the Internet. Within seconds, an entire 
civilization or country thousands of miles away is at your 
desktop. The Internet is also an ideal mechanism for 
encouraging students to assume responsibility for their 
own learning. As students find different learning 
resources on the Internet, they become active participants 

Benefits of Internet 

Browsing the web 

Visiting Govt museum, 
university and schools 
Reading news 
Exploring libraries 
Reading Books 
Getting software 
Online shopping 
Playing games 
Watching videos 
Having a discussion 

Reading programme on 
other computers 
Exchanging messages 
On line Banking 


in their quest for knowledge. Students are able to define their learning needs, find information, 
assess its value, build their own knowledge base, and communicate their discoveries. Yet 
before you can begin to use the Internet in your classroom, students need to have the 
foundation of two main sets of skills to help them navigate the Internet and then manage the 
large amounts of information they find. 

Internet Navigation Skills 

It helps in introducing the Internet to your students to familiarize them with common 
terms. You may want to use the internet to help define terms. The Internet is an amazing 
system of computers that provides people with an incredible amount of information. In 
order to make sense of all of this information, search engines were created to help people 
find what they were looking for in a more efficient way. 

Simple Searching Rules 

1 . Use the word AND when you want information about two or more key words together, 
e.g.: Colleges and SAT, dolphins and whales, Dodgers and Giants and Expos 

2. Use the word NOT when you want information about one key word but no information 
about the other. 

e.g.: Art NOT painting, football NOT playoffs, national parks NOT California 

3. Use quotation marks around the names of people, places, or a phrase. This makes sure 
that the words appear right next to each other in the Web site. 

e.g.: "English Classroom," "Rashtrapathi Bhavan," "Indian Parliament" 

4. To find a picture of something, type in image: (what you are looking for), 
e.g.: Image: dog, image: Saturn, image: Sunil Gavaskar 

Note that the clearer the key word is, the more specific the returned information will be. 

Organising Skills 

Once students analyze and organize information, it is time to begin putting it all together. 
Students can be taught to ask themselves if the new information "fits" with what they already 
know or if it is different. Students now turn their attention to producing an end product with 
their information and knowledge. An important step in teaching this skill is to show students 
examples of well-done final products. These may be reports, drawings, oral presentations, 
or multimedia products. One of the final steps in any product is to document where the 
information was found. Using a bibliography format, students can record the Web site 
addresses, the name of the site, and other important information such as who is sponsoring 
the site. 


Listening to podcasts is one of the best ways of improving the communication skills 
of the students. Podcasts on education and teaching and learning of English can be 
downloaded and the students can be made to listen to the contents to improve their listening 
skills. There are a wide variety of listening materials in podcast format available on the net. 
There are video casts also which are very useful for classroom use. BBC is bringing out 
quite a lot of materials on current affairs and use of English. To make it more convenient 
the listening materials can be converted, recorded and played on audio cassettes. 


What is podcasting? 

Podcasting is the recent technology in distributing multimedia files - audio and 
video files - over the internet. The term podcast or podcasting has only been used 
since 2004 but its concept - the method of distribution - has been known since 
2000. The term is a combination of two words related to audio: "iPod" and 
"broadcast" or "broadcasting." With podcasting, the files are automatically 
downloaded onto the computer of the subscriber of a podcast . 

Developing Internet- Safe Lessons 

Now that your students have basic skills on searching and navigating the Internet and 
strategies to manage and make sense of the information they find, you can begin using the 
Internet in your lessons, learning centres, and individual assignments and projects. A few 
last-minute tips on developing Internet-safe lessons: 

1 . Never start lessons by having students only use search engines. 

2. Require students to find very specific information, not just surf. 

3. Always require students to write down the URLs of the sites they use for reports in a 
bibliography format. 

4. Don't send the entire class to the same site at the same time. 

5. Try to preview sites before students visit them. 


• How will you integrate the internet into classroom activity? 

• How can the internet be used to transform the regular classroom transaction? 



ICT stands for Information Communication Technology, and describes the technologies 
we use in our daily lives to communicate. It is increasingly used in education and business. 
This means children have access to ICT in many different aspects of their lives. It is essential, 
therefore, that we give them a wide variety of opportunities to explore how technology can 
support them in their learning. For example, while students can use a desk top publishing 
package to create a school newspaper they can also develop their ability to communicate 
more effectively. This provides both a context and a meaning for the ICT activity. 

ICT helps pupils learn English by enabling them to communicate, edit, annotate and 
arrange text quickly and flexibly. ICT can be used to integrate speaking, listening, reading 
and writing. It enhances interactive teaching and learning styles. It also extends pupils' ability 
to exercise choice, work independently and make connections between their work in English 
and in other subjects. This area used to be called IT. The letters stood for Information 
Technology. The C in ICT was introduced because it has become obvious that technology as 
a device for handling information, is as equally important as a tool for communication. 


Seen as communication tools, computers have an obvious place in language teaching and 
learning. The C in ICT can help us to remember a number of key points to bear in mind when 
using computers in English classrooms. 


After going through this chapter, the teacher trainees will be able to: 

• plan, draft, revise and edit their own writing using a word processor and other desktop 
publishing packages; 

• easily locate and read significant parts of the text by using search strategies; 

• locate information quickly, confidently and accurately; 

• have access to a wider number of texts online e.g. newspapers; 

• communicate with a wider group of people e.g. via e-mail, newsgroups, online 

• integrate different media into one text. 

> Catalysts 

Computers are often a catalyst for student activity. Unlike television, computers invite 
learners to be active. They can't just sit staring at a computer screen. They have to do 
something. Related to this point is the idea of challenge. Working with computers offers 
an almost continual series of minor (and sometimes major) problems. 

> Collaboration 

Another key concept is collaboration or 
co-operation. The computer screen allows 

pupils to do things together. Two or three 
(or even a whole class, if the screen is big 
enough) can participate in the same activity, 
(solving a problem, finding answers to a 
question, writing a story and so on.) 

> Creativity 

Computers also encourage creativity. 
Sound, pictures, animations, video and text 
can be put together in new and different 
ways to make stories more convincing and 
explanations clearer than they would have 
been without this multi-media tool. 

> Complementary Function 

Computers seem to work best as tools for 
learning and teaching when they 
complement other teaching and learning 
activity. Learners should be encouraged to 
take notes when working with computers. 
Many computer programmes for young 

Using ICT can help students to: 

• access, select and interpret 

• recognise patterns, relationships and 

• test reliability and accuracy 

• review and modify their work to 
improve quality 

• communicate with others and present 

• evaluate their work 

• improve efficiency 

• be creative and take risks 

• gain confidence and independence 

• sort and process text and data quickly 
and efficiently 

• save, record, edit and adapt their work 
quickly and efficiently 


learners can be used as sources of teaching materials such as flashcards for oral activities, 
materials for wall charts and classroom displays. Electronic reference materials such as 
dictionaries can be consulted when needed for writing - or to help students to understand 
a text. 

> Control 

Textbooks can be used to make pupils act in 
highly predictable ways such as answering 
questions about given texts, practicing and 
writing specified vocabulary items, responding 
to pronunciation exercises or grammar tasks 
in the textbook. 

Examples of ICT in classroom 

• Word processors to write up and 
present class work; 

• Using a spreadsheet to enter 
data for creating charts, and 
interpreting the results. 

• Using a database to enter data 
as part of educational 

• Using hypermedia to write up, 
lay out and present work for 
publication on the Internet; 

• Using the Internet and CD- 
ROMs to help with research 
during an investigation. 

> Competence 

Competence is a key concept, both linguistic 
and technical. The computer is not a 
mechanical surrogate teacher. Teachers cannot 
get pupils to create Internet web pages if they 
have no idea how to do these themselves. It is 
no use teachers telling pupils to use an 
electronic dictionary if they do not know what 
it contains, how to get at it or how to interpret 
it. Some students already know a lot about 
computers and we should invite them to help where this makes sense. 

> Communication 

The C in ICT stands for communication. The primary purpose of ICT in teaching English 

must be to stimulate real communication between students. Whenever computers are 

used in English teaching, there are opportunities for teachers to communicate informally 

and purposefully with their students. 

A word-processor is an ideal vehicle for modelling the writing process in shared writing 


Guided writing 

The opportunities for using ICT for guided writing are much the same as for shared 
writing, but allows for even more focus on the drafting process. 


There is a range of software available to support specific areas of literacy, particularly 
spelling, phonics and grammar, which can be ideal for group and independent work. Some 
pupils can work on the computer while others work on paper, both working to the same 
learning objectives. When planning word-processing activities, a key point to remember is 
to keep to short focused tasks, concentrating on specific aspects of writing. 


Tasks for students for improving their usage of English 

Assembling Text 

Students could write sentences describing five familiar objects. They 
could use clip art in MS Word to match sentences referring to pictures 
of the objects . They could also match beginning and ending of sentences 
or complete the sentences and match them with the pictures. 

Task 2: 

Labelling & Classifying 

Students could use a prepared word bank with names, shapes, sizes 
and colours of objects in your class or objects related to your topic. 
They could choose appropriate words for objects to make labels which 
could then be printed. 

Task 3: 

Using a Word Bank 

Students could select words from a word bank or word list on a word 
processor to complete sentences. Ask pupils to produce a piece of 
text about themselves or write simple stories based on previous reading 
using words from a word bank. 

Task 4: 
Writing Stories 

Communicating information using text: Students could do a range of 
activities with text using MS Word ; this could run throughout the year. 
This includes typing labels, writing simple sentences, rearranging lines 
in a poem, arranging a string often items from a shopping list into a 
horizontal list, typing speech into a speech bubble or deleting words to 
break up longer sentences. Pupils could produce a picture book by 
writing text to go with the pictures to tell the story. . 

Task 5: 

Finding Information 

Students could use a CD-ROM dictionary to find definitions for unusual 
words encountered in texts related to the class topic. 

Students could use a CD-ROM encyclopaedia or the Internet to gather 
information on a topic which could be used to draft sentences on what 
they found out. 

Task 6 

Combining Text & 

Students could produce a class newsletter which includes pictures, 
captions and font effects, with the text punctuated and arranged in 

Preparing TLM 

Students could write portraits of characters and present them in a variety 
of ways such as a poster, or a labelled diagram. This could also be a 
poster on a topic of concern and the other pupils could respond with 
written comments. 

Task 8 

Students should use e-mail to write to a range of people. This could be 
to pupils in another school involved in a joint e-mail project or an 
organisation from which they require information for the class topic. 

Task 9 

Writing for different 

They should use web sites of national and local newspapers to read a 
variety of reports. They should look at the layout and common features. 
They could collect, list and compare opening sentences. Pupils could 
write articles in pairs over a period of time. Their articles could then be 
used to produce a class newspaper. 



• What are the innovative pedagogical practices in which teachers use ICT? 

• How do these practices change what teachers do in the classroom? 

• How do these innovations change what students do in the classroom? 

• Browse the internet and find out how ICT has been used and can be used to extend pupils 
capabilities in the classroom. 

• Compare a class of students not provided with ICT with another so provided. Observe the 
responses and evaluate each group's nature of attainments in terms of quality. 


1 . Wright, A ( 1 976 ), ' Visual Materials for the Language Teachers' , London, Longman. 

2. Wright, A and Haleem, S (1991), 'Visuals for the Language Classroom' , London, 

3. Myra B.Cook, Joseph H.Caldwell, and Lina J.Christiansen, ' Dynamic Teaching in the 
Elementary School', London. 

4. Mark Hancock , 'Singing Grammar', Great Britain, Cambridge University Press. 

5. Myra B. Cook, Joseph H. Caldwell, 'Dynamic Teaching in the Elementary School'. 

6. D. Horseburgh, 'How to use the Blackboard Teaching English', London, Longman. 

7. Wright, 'Visual materials for the language teacher', London, Longman. 

8. Richard J. Koerner, 'Language Laboratory in the High School', Winnetka, IL. 

9. Rivers, W. (Ed.). (1987), 'Interactive Language Teaching', New York, Cambridge 
University Press. 

10. TM Srinivasan (2002 ), 'Information and Communication Technology Teaching 
Skills', New Delhi. 

1 1 . Eric H Glendinning & John McEwan, 'English for Information Technology' , Oxford, 
Oxford University Press. 

12. Ely, P (1984), 'Bring the lab back to life', New York, Pergamon Press. 

1 3 . H A Cartledge & M R Snodin, ' The use of Blackboard' , English Language Teaching. 

14. Seely John (1989), 'Teaching English to young learners', London, Oxford University 

1 5 . Rao Venugopal K, 'Methods of Teaching English' , New Delhi, Neel Kamal Publications. 

1 6 . 

17. http://ipod.about.eom/od/introtopodcasts/a/intro_podcasts.htm 

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Time all owed: 3 hours Maximum Marks: 100 

Note: Answer all the questions neatly and legibly 

I. Answer all the questions: 20x2=40 

1. The guide words on the dictionary pages are given. On which page would you 
fi nd each of these entry words? 

demonstrate- density 310 dent-deplore 311 

a) demate b) dense c) depart d) denizen 

2. H ow are gerunds used? 

3. What are the uses of infinitives? 

4. Identify the type of 'if clauseused in each of the foil owing sentences. 

a) If I were you, I would fightfor my rights 

b) If it rains, we will not play the match 

5. Combine the sentences using a relative clause. 

a) The village was destroyed by floods. It has been rebuilt. 

b) I read a book. The book was i nteresti ng. 

6. I dentify the error i n the fol I ow i ng sentences. 

a) The teacher made the children to work hard. 

b) The pi ane took from the ai rport at the ri ght ti me. 

7. Identify the type of sentences given below. 

a) I had a sound sleep last night. 

b) When I looked into the bottle, I saw a few worms. 

8. Frame suitable questions for the underlined part in thefollowing sentences; 

a) I waited for the bus for half an hour . 

b) The police caught the thief. 

9. Supply a suitable tag to the fol lowi ng sentences. 

a) King Karikalan built Kallannai. 

b) Nails are not meant for biting. 

10 Convert the following into a compound sentence. 

If you read newspapers regularly, you can improve your English. 

11. What actually happens to your eyes when you read? 

12. What are the various grammatical forms for seeki ng permission? 

13. What is a composition? 

14. What are the stages involved in the process of writing? 

15. W hat are the objecti ves of assessment? 


16. What do the fol lowi ng types of exercises test? 

a) Missing letters. 

b) Fill in the blank with suitable words given i n the brackets. 

17. What are the uses of teaching learning materials? 

18. Mention any two newspaper based activities to develop the reading skill of the 

19. What is a language laboratory? 

20. Give two examples for teaching present continuous tense using blackboard 

II. Answer any eight of the fol lowing questions: 8x5=40 

21. What are the guidelines for explaining a process? 

22. Prepare your Bio-data for applying for a job. 

23. Summarise the fol I owing paragraph without losing its essence. 

The Elephant 

Now that the mammoth is extinct, the elephant is the largest of all 
animals living, and the strongest. It is a strange-looking animal, with its 
thick legs, huge sides and back, large hanging ears, short tail, small eyes, 
long white tusks, and above all, its long nose, called the trunk. The trunk is 
the elephant's peculiar feature, and it puts it to various uses. It draws up 
water by its trunk, and can squirt it all over its body like a shower bath; and 
with it, it picks leaves from the trees and puts them into its mouth. In fact, 
its trunk serves the elephant as a long arm and hand. Elephants look 
very clumsy and heavy, and yet they can move very quickly when they need 
to do so. 

Elephants are found in India and in Africa. The African elephant differs 
in some points from the Indian, being larger, with longer tusks and bigger 
ears. In fact the two are considered to be different species. In both countries, 
they live in herds in the jungles, and are naturally shy animals that keep 
away from men. Elephants, with their great size and strength, are fine 
advertisement for vegetarianism, for they live entirely on leaves of trees, 
grass, roots and bulbs. 

The elephant is a very intelligent animal, and its intelligence combined 
with its great strength, makes it, when tamed, a very useful servant to man; 
and it has been trained to serve in various ways. 

24. Fill inthe blanks with the suitable form of theverb given in brackets. 

News (collect) from various parts of the city. It (edit) 

in the editor's room. He also (write) the editorial. The reporter 

(ask) to verify the sources of the news again. Finally it 

(print) in the newspapers. 

25. What are the advantages of silent reading? 

26. What are the objectives of creative writing? 

27. Give instructions on how to make a paper boat. 


28. Devise two games for teaching adjectives. 

29. Rearrange the jumbled words and make meaningful sentences, 
i) Put in the coconut sapling 

ii) Pour water. 

iii) Fill the pit to a height of V2 feet with sand. 

iv) Again fill the pit till the face of the coconut is covered. 

v) Sprinkle some dry cowdung, charcoal and a handful of salt. 

vi) Dig a 3 feet deep pit. 2x2 sq.ft 

30. Expand the following newspaper headlines. 
Powercut affects the examinees. 

31. List any five teaching learning materials and illustrate their uses with an 
example for each. 

III. Answer the following questions within a range of 500 words each. 


32. Prepare a lesson plan to teach 'If clause' type-l with a minimum of the 
five activities. 


33. Devise five activities for improving the learners' reading ability. 

34. What is story mapping? Explain it with an example. 


35. a) Frame five true or false questions for a prose lesson from Std. V. 
b) Design a 'fill-in' exercise for testing vocabulary in Std. IV. 




Time all owed: 3 hours Maximum Marks: 100 

Note: Answer all the questions neatly and legibly 

I. Answer all the questions: 20x2=40 

1. Choose the word that has the same or almost the same meaning of the given 

a) fast 

i)slow ii) quick iii) open 


i)angry ii) unhappy iii) asleep 

c) beautiful 

i) pretty ii) magic iii) better 

d) loud 

i) notice ii) quiet iii) noisy 

2. Frame a sentence using the phrasal verb 'give up'. 

3. Underline the prepositional phrases in the foil owing sentences, 
i) The baby is beside the father. 

ii) Airplanes can fly through storms. 

iii) Thecat is under the table. 

iv) The mother treats her children with kindness. 

4. Fill in the blanks with 'who' or 'which'. 

a) I want to congratulate the boy got first mark in the annual examination. 

b) Tel I me the name of the f i I m you saw yesterday. 

c) This is not the shop sells Televisions. 

d) Have you found the chain you lost recently. 

5. What are the three common types of conditional sentences? 

6. What is bare infinitive? Give an example. 

7. Frame questions for thefolliwng statements, 
i) Shecan dance. ('Yes' or 'No' question) 

ii) They went to Chennai for their holiday. ('Wh' question). 

8. Turn the foil owing sentences from the Active Voice to the Passive Voice, 
i) Rama was making a kite. 

ii) My cousin has draw nth is picture. 

9. Identify the coordinating conjunctions in thefollowing sentences, 
i) I like English and my friend like Tamil. 

ii) Eswari was not well, so she didn't attend the class, 
iii) Heworked hard, yethefailed in the examination, 
iv) Birdsfly and fish swim. 

10. Change the foil owing complex sentence into simple and compound sentences: 
If you do exercise regularly, you can improve your health. 


11. What are the uses of skimming? 

12. Design an activity to teach 'adjectives'. 

13. What are the types of composition? 

14. What are the features of free composition? 

15. M enti on any fou r characteri sti cs of assessment. 

16. Desi gn a cl oze exerci se to teach prepositi on. 

17. Name some of the teaching learning materials (mini mum four) that can be used 
for classroom teaching and learning. 

18. Create a game for teaching 'pronoun'. 

19. What are the differences between traditional classroom and multimedia lab. 

20. Give two examples for teaching 'opposites' using blackboard sketches. 

II. Answer any eight of the following questions: 8x5=40 

21. Develop the foil owing proverb into a paragraph. 
'Time and tidewaitfor no one'. 

22. Write a letter to your friend thanki ng hi m for the gift of a watch sent to you for 
your birthday. 

23. Descri be the process of record i ng a d i al ogue i n a cassette. 

24. Add suitable question tags. 

i) Shecan'tswim. ii) It isn't going to rain, 

iii) Youarefree. iv) Gopi broke the glass, 

v) M ohan doesn't work hard. 

25. What is reading readiness and how will you foster it? 

26. Give some tips for improving handwriting. 

27. Explain the steps involved in teaching grammar. 

28. Devise two verbal situations to teach 'verbs'. 

29. Why should composition be taught? Explain. 

30. Describe your classroom in five sentences. 

31. What are the advantages of low level blackboard and white-board. 

III. Answer the following questions within a range of 500 words each. 


32. Design five activities to teach active and passive voice. 


33. What are the methods of teaching reading? Which is the best method of 
teaching reading. 

34. Mention the common problems in handwriting and suggest suitable 
remedial measures for the same. 


35. a) Frame a 'matching exercise' for a prose lesson from Std. V. 

b) Design an 'odd man out' exercise for testing vocabulary in std. IV. 








i. Preparing story map for five stories 


ii. Writing review of two books taken from the Institute Library 


iii. Designing five innovative activities for any two grammatical 

items from Content B 


iv. Preparing any five teaching learning materials for 






Reduced to 




Marks of Unit Test and Term Tests conducted in the institution 




Presenting papers in two seminars conducted by the institution 


Question Bank 


Preparing question banks containing all types of questions 

(Subjective and objective) in each unit in the school syllabus for 

any one standard from 1 to V and any one unit from the course 


syllabus (Subjective questions only) 

Subject specific Tasks 

i. Preparing sample non-verbal texts for reading 

(Graphs, Tables, Maps, Charts etc. 4x5=20) 


ii. Collecting four composite pictures and designing tasks 

(Picture reading) 


iii. Selecting five paragraphs in Tamil and translating 

them into English 


iv. Preparing blue-prints and question papers (100 marks) 

for any two classes from 1 to V 




Reduced to 


Grand Total